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Women's Health

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Articles and Papers

Books and Reports

91. Khanday, Zamrooda & Tanwar, Yavnika. (2013). Exploring Religion based Discrimination in Health Facilities in Mumbai. Mumbai: CEHAT. [ISBN : 978-81-89042-66-0].

This study is an attempt to explore religion based discrimination in health facilities based on perceptions of women from different communities. The study reports that women accessing health facilities are discriminated on the basis of class, caste, language, region and religion. Health professionals and health systems need to recognize that women face multiple forms of discrimination based on caste, class and community and therefore take additional steps to ensure unbiased delivery of services. Download full report

50. Saha, Shelley; Duggal, Ravi and Mishra, Manasee. Abortion in Maharashtra: Incidence, Care and Cost. Mumbai: CEHAT, xiii, 126 p., January 2005. [ISBN 81-89042-32-7]

This report consists of findings of one of the two household based studies conducted under Abortion Assessment Project India (AAP-I) in Maharashtra. The main objective of the survey was to study pregnancy outcome analytically in the state with a focus on abortion incidence, care received and costs incurred. The study aims at providing inputs to society at large and to different stakeholders including policy makers to facilitate women's access to safe, legal and affordable abortion care services.Download full document

49. Swaminathan, Padmini (Ed.). Trapped Into Living: Women's Work Environment and their Perceptions of Health. Mumbai: CEHAT, 296 p., March 2005 [ISBN 81-89042-31-9]

This book covers different arena of women's work – women as industrial workers in informal sector, women workers in the growing export-oriented cultivation of grapes and women in urban slums forced into home-based work largely because of decline in traditional manufacturing activities. In this book attempt has been made to map multidimensional nature of women's work, address the contexts in which such work is carried out, bring together women's perceptions of their well-being and analyse these perceptions for their links between 'work' and 'health'.

Though the case studies do not directly show linkages to globalisation, they do show the adverse effect of larger changes in the economy affecting their lives. This book makes an attempt to bring out various nuances in the issues relating to the changing socio- economic scenario rendering the poor and women in particular – more vulnerable.Download full document

45. CEHAT and Healthwatch Trust Abortion Assessment Project-India: Research Summaries and Abstracts (Including complete reports and papers on CD-ROM). Mumbai: CEHAT, 136 p., December 2004 [ISBN 81-89042-36-X]

This report contains summaries of all research studies and papers written under the aegis of the AAP- India project. Abortion is the prime health concern of women but it is increasingly being governed by patriarchal interests, which more often curb the freedom of women to seek abortion as a right. Given the official perspective of understanding abortion within the concept of contraception, it is important to review abortion and abortion practices in India.

This summary report also includes a CD, which were produced under this project. The CD also includes press clippings related to AAP- India project. A film on Abortion produced by CEHAT is also included. Download full document

43. Duggal, Ravi and Barge, Sandhya. Abortion Services in India: Report of a Multicentric Enquiry. Mumbai: CEHAT, 78 p., December 2004. [ISBN 81-89042-34-3]

This study is the synthesis report derived from state level studies of providers of abortion services. This multicentric study using standardised methodology and protocols was conducted in six states and within each state 2 districts were covered. The study is a comprehensive enquiry into the various dimension of provision of abortion services. Download Report

42. Hirve, Siddhivinayak. Abortion Policy in India: Lacunae and Future Challenges. Mumbai: CEHAT, 88 p., May 2004. [ISBN 81-89042-30-0]

The publication constitutes the “Policy Review” component of the AAP-India project. The paper analytically reviews abortion legislation and related policy implications, including the recent amendments and the complexities arising due to the PNDT Act. The paper concludes with a discussion on opportunities for change and possible advocacy issues to bring abortion policy within the rights domain. Download full document

41. Khot, Anagha; Menon, Sumita and Dilip, T. R. Domestic Violence: Levels, Correlates, Causes, Impact and Response: A Community Based Study of Married Women from Mumbai Slums. Mumbai: CEHAT, 62 p., June 2004. [ISBN 81-89042-29-7]

This study brings out clear evidence of wide-spread prevalence of domestic violence within the community, looks at the reasons for the violence and explores what women do to seek help to come out of such a situation. The scope of this study was limited to ever-married women and to violence within marital relationships. Despite its specific limited scope, this research is a significant contribution to the literature on domestic violence in India. Download full document

40. Anand, Anita. Sexuality, Abortion and the Media: A Review of Adolescent Concerns. x,22 p., September 2003. [ISBN 81-89042-19-X]

This paper throws light on the adolescent sexuality, whether adolescents are practicing safe sex, girls and young women are experiencing unwanted pregnancies? Where they are going for termination of pregnancies. How today's' adolescents perceive their sexual needs and what are their sources of information and levels of awareness? How much does the media influence their sexual attitudes and how does media reflect adolescent attitudes? Download full document

39. Barnes, Lindsay. Abortion Options for Rural Women: Case Studies from the Villages of Bokaro District, Jharkhand. Mumbai, CEHAT, viii,20 p., September 2003. [ISBN 81-89042-18-1]

This paper aimed to document poor, rural-women's experience of abortion in a backward part of the Bokaro district in Jharkhand. The paper highlights the total lack of accessible, affordable and safe abortion services. The study also shows that in a system dominated by private practitioners, abortion care becomes a lucrative source of profit and women's overall health and well-being is a low priority. Download full report

38. Batra, Sangeeta and Rabindranathan, Sunanda. Abortion Training in India: A Long Way to Go. Mumbai: CEHAT, x, 18 p., October 2003. [ISBN 81-89042-23-8]

This paper looks at the current state of abortion training in India, tracing its evolution from the earlier system to the recent Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) Program. The number of training sites is inadequate to meet training needs. There are gaps in the training system that need to be covered to make the program a success. The paper recommends that there should be change at both the policy and implementation level. Download full document

35. Ghosh, Swati. Professional Abortion Seekers: The Sex - of Kolkata. Mumbai: CEHAT, vii,20 p., October 2003. [ISBN 81-89042- 24-6]

This paper is on the practice of abortion and prevention of pregnancy among the sex-workers in Kolkata. The paper is based on in-depth personal interview of brothel-based sex-workers, information regarding abortion services, contraceptive devices and childbirth are collected from traditional red light areas. The paper also examines the access to abortion services, prevailing patterns of contraceptive use and family structure of the sex workers. Download full document

34. Mallik, Rupsa. Negative Choice Sex Determination and Sex Selective Abortion in India. Mumbai: CEHAT, xii, 28 p., September 2003. [ISBN 81-89042-21-1]

This paper is a three-part analysis of Sex determination and Sex Selective Abortion. The factors that affect the practice are son preference, growth in the political economy and diagnostic technologies and enforcement of a small family norm. The second section talks about various campaigns undertaken to advocate for laws that regulate diagnosic technologies and ban sex determination. The third section talks about the various debates between activists who spearheaded the campaign and the role of the medical community. Download full document

33. Mishra, U. S. and Dilip, T. R. Assessing Potential for Induced Abortion Among Indian Women. Mumbai: CEHAT, x,18 p., November 2003. [ISBN 81-89042-25-4]

This paper is based on National Family Health Survey-II (1898-99) data and is intended to provide an indirect assessment of the magnitude of induced abortion practice within marriage in India in order to attain the desired sex composition of children and to avoid unplanned pregnancies This paper also highlights the high level of use of abortions as a contraceptive method in the country and the serious implications for health policy in general and women's well being in particular. Download full document

32. Saha, Shelley. Methodological Issues in Abortion Estimation., Mumbai: CEHAT, xii, 24 p., October 2003. [ISBN 81-89042-22-X]

This paper reviews the methodological issues that are peculiar to abortion estimation using community-based surveys. Many of the abortion estimation surveys suffer from reporting errors, both non-intentional and intentional. This review suggests that there is a need that surveys undertaken to estimate abortion rate should be sensitive to elicit better information. Besides survey questionnaire, other data collection methods like use of randomized response technique or self-administered questionnaire have also been reviewed. The paper concludes with information on further strategies that might be adopted for future research on this subject. Download full document

30. Sundar, Ramamani. Abortion Costs and Financing: A Review. Mumbai: CEHAT, x,30 p., September 2003. [ISBN 81-89042-20-3]

This paper looks at the cost of abortion. A woman undergoing abortion has to incur expenditure in various forms, both direct and indirect. A review of the available literature indicates that there is very limited data on the cost of abortion in the country and hence there is a increased need to do research in this critical area of financing for abortion care. There is not only a need to know the abortion charges at the various types of MTP centers, but also the household dynamics like the source of financing the abortion etc. Also, a much better regulation of private medical practitioners as well as dissemination of information to them so that women seeking an abortion are not exploited financially. Download full document

24. Bart, Johnston Heidi. Abortion Practice in India: A Review of Literature. viii,24 p., May 2002 [ISBN 81-89042-10-6]

The first paper in this series advocates need for expanded community-based education to address issues of women's reproductive health specifically and the issues of women's right to high quality health care services in general. This literature review draws attention to the fact that abortion and associated morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion are common problem and need to be given top priority for safe motherhood issues in India. Download full document

23. Bandewar, Sunita, Sumant, Madhuri. Quality of Abortion Care: A Reality. iv,216 p., 2002 [ISBN 81-89042-13-0]

The report is based on the study of the abortion care facilities and providers in two districts of Maharashtra. The study covered registered and non-registered, government as well as private abortion care facilities in nine tehsils of two districts. The study found that the quality of abortion services available to women substandard. The poor implementation of the law and rules for quality care by the government and low compliance with the legislations by the medical professionals. Quality of Abortion care should be a part of the strategy of general improvement in the health care delivery system.

21. Nandraj, Sunil; Madhiwalla, Neha; Sinha, Roopashri and Jesani, Amar. Women and Health Care in Mumbai: A Study of Morbidity, Utilisation and Expenditure on Health Care in the Households of the Metropolis. 77 p., September 2001 [ISBN 81-89042-09-2]

The study report made an attempt to understand and document analytically the perceived morbidity patterns, the problems faced by women in accessing health care facilities in connection with their utilization and expenditure incurred by households on women's health care with special reference to socio-economic differentials. Download full report

19. Bandewar, Sunita and Saha, Shelley. Studies in Reproductive Health Services in India (1990-1991): Selected Annotated Bibliography. Mumbai: CEHAT, 165 p., December 2000 [ISBN 81-89042-07-6]

References cited in this compilation are helpful to identify research gaps and sharpen the perspective for future research in reproductive health. This volume is must for researchers, health activists, programme implementation agencies working on reproductive health care and is an indispensable reference tool born out of the rich experience of the compilers of this study. Download full report

16. Madhiwalla, Neha; Nandraj, Sunil and Sinha, Roopashri. Health, Households and Women's Lives: A Study of Illness and Childbearing Among Women in Nasik District, Maharashtra. Mumbai: CEHAT, 141 p., June 2000 [ISBN 81-89042-06-0]

This report covers most of the health problems of women in rural as well as urban areas in Nasik district of western Maharashtra. The study throws light on health care services, health expenditure, across gender, age and other socially important factors. Download full report

Mala Ramanathan,P. Sankara Sarma and Krishnakumar C.S Situational Analysis Of MTP Services In Kerala: Provider Perspectives

Dr. Alex George An Enquiry Into Provision of Abortion Services

CINI A Multicentric Study on Provider Related Issues In The State Of Orissa

CRDC,Situation Analysis of MTP Facilities In Haryana

Sharad D. Iyengar, Kirti Iyengar and Virendra Suhalka Situation Analysis of Abortion Services in Rajasthan

Omeo Kumar Das Institute of Social Change and Development, Abortion in Mizoram: A Multicentric Study

Leela Visaria, Vimala Ramachandran, Bela and Ganatra Shveta Kalyanwala Abortion in India: Emerging Issues from the Qualitative Studies

Bela Ganatra and Leela Visaria Informal Providers of Abortion Services:Some Exploratory Case Studies

S. Krishnamoorthy, N. Thenmozhi,J. Sheela and N.Audinarayana Pregnancy Outcome In Tamilnadu A Survey With Special Reference to Abortion Complications, Cost And Care

Leading Causes of Morbidity and Mortality by Aditi Iyer, Section C3.1 of the Women's Health and Development, Country Profile, India, 1998, pgs. 34. (Draft Submitted to WHO/VHAI)

Women's Access to Health Care by Aditi Iyer,Section C3.7 of the Women's Health and Development, Country Profile, India, 1998, Pgs. 46. (Draft Submitted to WHO/VHAI)

Women's Reproductive Health by Aditi Iyer,Section C3.7 of the Women's Health and Development, Country Profile, India, 1998, Pgs. 41. (Draft Submitted to WHO/VHAI)

Health, Section for the Women's Health and Development by Amar Jesani, WHO COUNTRY PROFILE: India, 1998, Pgs. 34. (Draft Submitted to WHO/VHAI)

Women’s Perspectives on the Quality of General and Reproductive Health Care: Evidence from Rural Maharashtra by Manisha Gupte, Sunita Bandewar and Hemalata Pisal in Improving Quality of Care in India’s Family Welfare Programme: The Challenge Ahead, Edited by Koenig A, Michael, M.E Khan (eds.), New York, Population Council, 1999 Pgs.117–139

Abortion Needs of Women in India A Case Study of Rural Maharashtra by Manisha Gupte, Sunita Bandewar and Hemalata Pisal, Reproductive Health Matters, No. 9, May 1997, Pgs. 77–86

Women’s Role in Decision Making in Abortion: Profiles from Rural Maharashtra by Manisha Gupte, Sunita Bandewar and Hemalata Pisal, Paper Prepared for XIV International Conference of the Social Science and Medicine at Peebles, Scotland, September 1996, Pgs. 23

Articles and Papers

A 308. Contractor, Sana. Abortion and sex selection: Contentious issues in the campaign against sex selection. The Urban World, Special issue on sex selection and PCPNDT act. 4(3), July-Sep 2011, pp. 13-17

A 274. Chauduri, Leni, Our Little Girl: Child Marriage in India- An Overview, Communalism Combat, Vol. 12, No. 112, November 2005, Pgs. 32-33

A 273. Chauduri, Leni, Population Control: At What Cost, Health Action, Vol.18, No. 12, December 2005, Pgs. 20-21.

A 271. Chaudhuri, Leni, Technology and Gender Based Discrimination; Sex-Selection Techniques, Health Action, Vol.18, No. 10, October 2005, Pgs. 13-15

A 270. Chaudhari, Leni, Youth Health in India, Humanscape, Vol. X!!, Issue VII, August 2005, Pgs. 24-25.

A 258. Mahabal, Kamayani Bali Gender Equality and Millienium Development Goals, Samyukta, A Journal of Women Studies ,Vol.V, No.1, January 2005, Pgs.113-114

A 257. Mahabal, Kamayani Bali Sex Selection- unethical practice, cover story Health Action- May 2005

A 251. Pitre, Amita,Women's Health and Their Lives: A Perspective From Maharashtra, background paper presented at the Western Zone International Women and Health Meeting (IWHM) at Ahmedabad, Gujarat, 2nd March 2005, Pgs.9

A 239. Duggal, Ravi The Political Economy of Abortion in India: Cost and Expenditure Patterns, Reproductive Health Matters, Vol.12, No.24, November 2004 ( Supplement) Pgs.130–137

A 235. Duggal, Ravi and Dilip T.R. Unmet Need for Public Health-Care Services in Mumbai, India Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 19, No. 2, June 2004

A 234. Duggal, Ravi and Ramachandran, Vimala The Abortion Assessment Project – India: Key Findings and Recommendations, Reproductive Health Matters, Vol.12, No.24, November 2004 ( Supplement), Pgs.122–129

A 222. Mahabal, Kamayani Bali Sex selection is abuse of genetic diagnostic technology, Express Healthcare Management, July 16-31, 2004.

A 204. Duggal, Ravi Abortion Economics -Cost and Expenditures, Seminar 532, December 2003, Pgs. 47-52

A 190. Madhiwalla, Neha Help Yourself, Humanscape, Vol. 5, No.9, September 2003, Pgs.27-29

A 189. Madhiwalla, Neha Women's Illnesses: Life Cycle Approach, National Medical Journal of India, Supplement No.2, Vol. 16, 2003, Pgs. 35-38

A 179. Rege, Sangeeta Dilaasa-Creating Spaces For Women in A Public Health System, Humanscape E-newsletter, March 2003, Pgs.5

A 178. Shelley, Saha and Manasee, Mishra Offering contraceptive choices post-abortion: The ignored link by service providers, Paper presented in the Symposium on Expanding Contraceptive Choices: International and Indian Experiences and their Implications for Policies and Programmes, December 7-10, 2003, Pgs.8

A 174. Balaji, Rajeswari Women's Access to Good Quality Abortion Care Services, Paper presented at the first International Conference Medical Sociology, Health, Illness and Society in the new Millennium organised by the Madras Medical Mission, Institute of Cardio-Vascular Diseases, May 25 – 26, 2002.Pgs.5

A 173. Contractor, Qudsiya Sex Selection and the Law, Combat Law, Vol. 1, Issue 1, April – May 2002, Pgs. 69-70

A 170. Dilip, T.R Utilisation of Reproductive and Child Health Care Services: Some Observations from Kerala, Journal of Health Management, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2002, Pgs.19-30

A 163. Mishra, U.S. and Dilip, T.R. Does Better Reproductive Health Status Mean Low Fertility Levels? Evidence from Asian Countries, Health and Population- Perspective and Issues. 25, No.2, 2002, Pgs.65-73

A 153. Bandewar, Sunita Abortion Legislation and Access to Safe Abortion Care Services: The Indian Experience in Advocating for Abortion Access: Eleven Country Studies, Johannesburg, Edited by Klugman Barbara and Debbie Budlender, University of Witwatersrand, 2001, Pgs.135-155

A 150. Deosthali, Padma Networking for Women's Studies and Activities, Samvadini, Vol. 3, Issues1, September 2001, Pgs. 18-19

A 141. Madhiwalla, Neha Sex Selection: Ethics in the Context of Development, Issues in Medical Ethics, October-December 2001, Vol.9, No. 4, Pgs. 125-126

A 135. Saha, Shelley and T K Sundari, Ravindran, Studies on Health Services with special focus on Reproductive Health Services in India from 1990 to 2000: A Critical Review, Paper presented at the workshop Reproductive Health Research Review Dissemination, Mumbai, June 2001, Pgs.25

A 130. Bandewar, Sunita Unsafe Abortion, Seminar, Issue 489, May 2000, Pgs.39-43

A 125. Choudhary, Manoj and Saha, Shelley Gender Issues Related to Women's Health Care, Health Action, Vol. 13, No. 9, 2000, Pgs. 18-19 A 124. Duggal,Ravi Private Health Sector in India – A critical review, Paper for PHA booklet No. 5, May 2000

A 120. Khot, Anagha and Menon, Sumita Gender-Sensitive and Community-based Programme for Mumbai Slum Women, Arrows for Change, Vol. 6, No. 1, May 2000, Pgs.3

A 113. Saha, Shelley Adolescents and their need for sex-education,Health for the Millions, September - October, 2000, Pgs. 10-12

A 112. Saha, Shelley Safe Abortions are still a Distant Dream, Humanscape, Vol. VII, Issue IX, September 2000, Pgs. 32-33

A 111. Saha, Shelley Unsafe Abortion, Frontier, Vol. 33, No. 1, July 30 - August 5, 2000, Pgs. 13-14

A 108. Bandewar, Sunita A Quarter Century of Legalised Abortion Services: A Country Situationer for India, Paper Presented at an International Dialogue on Reproductive Choice Organised by Likhaan, Manila, Philippines, 1999 , Pgs.22

A 104. Gupte, Manisha; Bandewar, Sunita and Pisal, Hemalata Women's Perspectives on the Quality of General and Reproductive Health Care: Evidence from Rural Maharashtra Improving Quality of Care in India's Family Welfare Programme: The Challenge Ahead, Edited by Koenig A, Michael, M.E Khan (eds.), New York, Population Council, 1999 Pgs.117-139

A 100. Khot, Anagha; Deosthali, Padma and Menon, Sumita Role of the Community and the Health Profession in Responding to Violence, Curare 22, 1999, Pgs. 35-37

A 99. Madhiwalla, Neha Health Professionals and Community Action Against Violence, Issues in Medical Ethics, Vol. VII, No.1, January-March 1999, Pgs. 29

A 98. Madhiwalla, Neha Violence and the Battering of the Mind, Perspectives, March 1999, Pgs. 3 – 4

A 95. Padmadas, S.S; F., Zavier and. Dilip, T. R Age at Menarche Among Indian Women: Observations from NFHS, 1992-1993, Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 45(2): 71-79 , October 1999, Pgs.71-79

A 91. Bandewar, Sunita Menstrual Regulations as an Abortion Method: A Socio-Medical and Legal Evaluation to Explore its Promotion in India, Paper Presented for The State Level Consultation on Issues Related to Safe and Legal Abortion, June 1998, Pgs.22. (Paper Accepted for Publication in the Radical Journal of Health).

A 90. Bandewar, Sunita Paramedics in Menstrual Regulation Practice: A Feasibility Evaluation, Paper Presented for The State Level Consultation on Issues Related to Safe and Legal Abortion, Pune, June 7, 1998, June 1998, Pgs.8 (Paper Accepted for Publication in the Radical Journal of Health)

A 89. Bandewar, Sunita; Lele, Mugdha and Pisal, Hemalata Access to Abortion Services: Taking a Stock of Impediments, Paper Presented for The State Level Consultation on Issues Related to Safe and Legal Abortion, Pune, June 7, 1998, Pgs. 27. (Paper Accepted for Publication in the Economic and Political Weekly)

A 82. Iyer, Aditi Leading Causes of Morbidity and Mortality, Section C3.1 of the Women's Health and Development, Country Profile, India, 1998, pgs. 34. (Draft Submitted to WHO/VHAI)

A 81. Iyer, Aditi Women's Access to Health Care, Section C3.7 of the Women's Health and Development, Country Profile, India, 1998, Pgs. 46. (Draft Submitted to WHO/VHAI)

A 80. Iyer, Aditi Women's Reproductive Health, Section C3.7 of the Women's Health and Development, Country Profile, India, 1998, Pgs. 41. (Draft Submitted to WHO/VHAI)

A 78. Jesani, Amar Health, Section for the Women's Health and Development, WHO COUNTRY PROFILE: India, 1998, Pgs. 34. (Draft Submitted to WHO/VHAI)

A 73. Madhiwalla, Neha Women, Development and Health Redefining the Relationship, Paper Presented at the National Seminar on The Rights to Development, University of Mumbai, December 10-11, 1998, Pgs. 1-8

A 69. Bandewar, Sunita Abortion: Cause for Concern in India, Even 25 years after Legalisation, Paper Prepared Sixth National Conference of Women's Movement at Ranchi, Bihar, December 28-30, 1997, Pgs.7

A 67. Gupte, Manisha; Bandewar, Sunita and Pisal, Hemalata Abortion Needs of Women in India A Case Study of Rural Maharashtra, Reproductive Health Matters, No. 9, May 1997, Pgs. 77-86

A 65. Madhiwalla, Neha Notes from the Field, Humanscape, Vol. 4, Issue 4, April 1997, Pgs. 28-31.

A 64. Madhiwalla, Neha and Jesani, Amar Morbidity Among Women in Mumbai City: Impact of Work and Environment, Economic & Political Weekly, Vol. XXXII, No. 43, October 25, 1997, Pgs. 38-44

A 60. Duggal, Ravi India's Family Welfare Program in the Context of a Reproductive & Child Health Approach: A Critique and a Viewpoint, MFC Bulletin, No.234-235, September-October 1996, Pgs. 7

A 58. Gupte, Manisha; Bandewar, Sunita and Pisal, Hemalata Women's Role in Decision Making in Abortion: Profiles from Rural Maharashtra, Paper Prepared for XIV International Conference of the Social Science and Medicine at Peebles, Scotland, September 1996, Pgs. 23

A 44. Gupte, Manisha; Karkal, Mali-ni and Sadgopal, Mira Women, Health and Development, Radical Journal of Health, Vol. 1, No. 1, (New Series), January-March, 1995, Pgs.25-36

A 43. Jesani, Amar Abortion: An Alternative to Family Planning?, 1995, Pgs.2

A 16. Gupte, Manisha On Being Normal (Whatever that is), MFC Bulletin, No. 197-201, August 1993, Pgs.

A 14 Jesani, Amar and Iyer, Aditi Women and Abortion, Economic and Political Weekly, November 27, 1993, Pgs.2591-2594

A 12. Prakash, Padma New Approaches to Women's Health: Means to an End?, Economic and Political Weekly, December 18, 1993, Pgs.2783-2786

A 11. Prakash, Padma; George, Annie and Rupande, Panalal Sexism in Medicine and Women's Rights, The Indian Journal of Social Work, Focus Issue, Patients' Rights, Vol. LIV, No. 2, April 1993, Pgs.199-204