Research Area : Women's health
In order to test the modified survey methodology for the study of women in household’s development in Nashik district, a pilot study was planned in Mumbai. As the pilot survey was eventually done for a large sample of 430 slum and non-slum household, its findings found independent relevance and a separate report was prepared. The study had the same objectives and methodology as described in the Nashik study (ref. Section C-1). The study was conducted in 1997 in the ‘L’ ward of Mumbai City, in five clusters - two slums, two chawls and one apartment block. The trends of the findings follow a similar pattern as those in the Nashik study.
The monthly prevalence rate of illness was 363 per thousand (169 for males, as compared to 597 for females). We found a steady rise in the morbidity rates with age of women.
Reproductive illnesses form the largest group of problems accounting for 28.2% of all episodes among women.
The study reveals high non-utilisation (32.5% of the illness episodes). Non utilisation was also found in relation to pregnant women and those who had delivered. 43% of the pregnant women did not utilise any facilities. Thus, despite having some of the best health care facilities in the city, the access to health care was poor, and financial problems was one of the major causes for non-utilisation.
There is a very high utilisation of the private health services. In 85% of the illness episodes, approach was made to the private facility and only 10% to the public facility.
The average per capita health expenditure incurred was Rs. 415.68 per year. As compared to that, the government expenditure in Mumbai was only Rs. 250 per person while the average per capita government expenditure in the country for the same year was Rs.90 per annum.
Supported by: The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, New Delhi Research Team:Sunil Nandraj, Neha Madhiwalla,Roopashri Sinha and Amar Jesani