Publications

Journal Articles

These are written by CEHAT staff and are published in various journals and magazines or presented at various National and International Conferences. In addition the collection also includes Papers/Articles written by CEHAT staff on various health issues.

2018

Need for gender sensitive health system responses to violence against women and children

Chandrasekhar, Aarthi
Published Year: 2018

IJME, Vol. III, No.1, January - March, 2018

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2017

Ethical concerns related to mandatory reporting of sexual violence

Rege, Sangeeta; Reddy, Jagadeesh Narayana; Bhate-Deosthali, Padma
Published Year: 2017

Indian Journal of Medical Ethics, Vol. II(2), April-June 2017, pp. 116-120

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Integrating gender in medical education

Bavadekar, Amruta; Rege, Sangeeta; Deosthali, Padma
Published Year: 2017

Quest in Education, Vol. XXXXI, No. 2, April, 2017, pp. 9 - 20

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Medico legal aspects of sexual violence: Impact on court judgments

Rege, Sangeeta; Reddy, Jagadeesh Narayana; Bhate-Deosthali, Padma
Published Year: 2017

Journal of Forensic Research and Analysis, Volume 1 - Issue 1, 29 November 2017, pp. 1 - 7

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Illegal kidney transplants: Where lies the problem?

Shah, Nehal
Published Year: 2017

CEHAT: Mumbai, 2017, pp. 3

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2016

Violence against women & role of health professionals

Rege, Sangeeta
Published Year: 2016

Health Action, 29(1), January 2016 pp. 10-12

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Who decides the best interest of the child?

Chandrasekhar, Aarthi; Ayarkar, Sujata
Published Year: 2016

Indian Journal of Medical Ethics, I(3), July-September 2016 pp. 184-185

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Gendered pattern of burn injuries in India: a neglected health issue

Bhate-Deosthali, Padma; Lingam, Lakshmi
Published Year: 2016

Reproductive Health Matters , 04 May 2016 , 24(47), pp. 96 - 103

There are an estimated 7 million burn injuries in India annually, of which 700,000 require hospital admission and 140,000 are fatal. 91,000 of these deaths are women; a figure higher than that for maternal mortality. Women of child bearing age are on average three times more likely than men to die of burn injuries. This paper reviews the existing literature on burn injuries in India and raises pertinent issues about prevalence, causes and gaps in recognising the gendered factors leading to a high number of women dying due to burns. The work of various women’s groups and health researchers with burns victims raises several questions about the categorisation of burn deaths as accident, suicide and homicide and the failure of the health system to recognise underlying violence. Despite compelling evidence, the health system has not recognised this as a priority. Considering the substantial cost of burns care, prevention is the key which requires health systems to recognise the linkages between burn injuries and domestic violence. Health systems need to integrate awareness programmes about domestic violence and train health professionals to identify signs and symptoms of violence. This would contribute to early identification of abuse so that survivors are able to access support services at an early stage. 

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2014

The health-systems response to violence against women

García-Moreno, Claudia; Hegarty,Kelsey; d’Oliveira, Ana Flavia Lucas; Koziol-MacLain,Jane; Colombini,Manuela; Feder, Gene
Published Year: 2014

The Lancet - Violence against women and girls series. November 21, 2014. pp. 1 - 13 + appendix.

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Responding to Sexual Violence: Evidence-based Model for the Health Sector

Rege, Sangeeta; Reddy, Jagadeesh Narayana; Bhate-Deosthali, Padma; Contractor, Sana
Published Year: 2014

Economic and Political Weekly, 49(48) November 29, 2014, pp. 96 - 101

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Amar Jesani Interview published on PCPNDT & Safe Abortion

Jesani, Amar
Published Year: 2014

Girlscount Newsletter October - December, Quarter 4(3). pp. 5 - 7.

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Addressing violence against women: a call to action

García-Moreno, Claudia; Zimmerman, Cathy; Morris-Gehring,Alison; Heise, Lori; Amin,Avni; Abrahams, Naeemah; ontoya, Oswaldo M.; Bhate-Deosthali, Padma; Kilonzo, Nduku; Watts Charlotte
Published Year: 2014

The Lancet , November 21, 2014. pp. 1685 - 1695.

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2013

Moving from evidence to care: ethical responsibility of health professionals in responding to sexual assault

Padma Deosthali
Published Year: 2013

Indian Journal of Medical Ethics, X(1) Jan-Mar 2013

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Reforms urged to tackle violence against women in India

Yee, Amy
Published Year: 2013

The Lancet, 381 April 27, 2013, pp. 1445-1446

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Health and Nutrition


Published Year: 2013

(2013). in "Socio-economic and educational backwardness of muslims in Maharashtra: a report". Mumbai: Government of Maharashtra

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Urban Youth in Health and Illness: A Rights Perspective

David, S.
Published Year: 2013

In Padma Prakash (Ed.), State of Youth in India 2012 (pp. 15-29). Mumbai, India: UN-HABITAT & IRIS-KF.

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Rethinking gender-based violence and public health policies in India Insights from Dilaasa, Mumbai, India

Bhate-Deosthali; Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2013

in Keerty Nakray (ed.) Gender Based Violence and Public Health - International Perspectives on Budgets and Policies 2013, pp. 184-196.

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2012

Addressing domestic violence within healthcare settings: The Dilaasa model

Bhate-Deosthali; T. K. Sundari, Ravindran; Vindhya, U.
Published Year: 2012

Economic and Political Weekly, 47(17) April 21 - April 27, 2012, pp. 66-75

Women experiencing violence most often decide to seek legal action only after the violence has escalated and that too without having any documentary evidence. The Dilaasa crisis centres at two public hospitals in Mumbai since 2001 have been established out of the recognition that the public health system is an important site for the implementation of anti-domestic violence intervention programmes. The crisis centres therefore straddle both discourses of public health and gender. The paper offers critical insights into the model and its impact in terms of its ability to reach out to women who are undergoing abuse and offer them multiple services in one setting. Read More


Violence faced by women health workers

Padma Deosthali; Sangeeta Rege
Published Year: 2012

In Sexual harassment at workplace edited by Deepti Deshpande and Nikhil Bhagwat. Nashik: Home Science Faculty of Gokhale Education Society's SMRK-BK-AK-Mahila Mahavidyalaya, 2012, pp. 104-112.

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Charitable Hospitals: Charity at Market Rate

Kurian, Oommen C
Published Year: 2012

Economic and Political Weekly, 47(39) September 29, 2012, pp. 23-25.

In Maharashtra, the Association of Hospitals and its member charitable hospitals are attempting to back out of providing free and subsidised beds to poor patients under the Bombay Public Trust Act Scheme which is a legally mandated service in return for subsidies. They are deliberately confusing this scheme with another health scheme of the Maharashtra government which is a business opportunity at competitive rates. Should the government fall for the obfuscation by these hospitals, it will end up paying the private “charitable” hospitals at market rates for what the latter are supposed to provide free in return for heavy subsidies. Read More


Appropriate Role for the Private Sector in Health Care in India


Published Year: 2012

Health for Millions. Oct-Dec 2012 Vol.38, No.4.

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2011

Mapping of Urban Health Facilities in Maharashtra

Dantas, Anandi
Published Year: 2011

Paper presented in the National Seminar on Delivery of Health care for the Urban Poor-Convergence Approach. Organised by Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies of All India Institute of Local Self Government (AIILSG), Mumbai and Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation, Government of India. January 6-7, 2011

Mapping of Urban Health Facilities in Maharashtra

Dantas, Anandi
Published Year: 2011

Paper presented in Eight Conference of Indian Association for Social Sciences and Health on Health, Environment and Sustainability. Organised by Department of Population Studies and Social Work, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, February 11-13, 2011.

Poor standards of care in small, private hospitals in Maharashtra, India: Implications for public-private partnerships for maternity care

Bhate-Deosthali; Ritu Khatri; Suchitra Wagle
Published Year: 2011

Reproductive Health Matters, 19(37), 2011, pp. 32-41

The private health sector in India is generally unregulated. Maharashtra is among the few states which require registration of private hospitals. This paper reports on a study of standards of care in small, private hospitals (less than 30 beds) in Maharashtra state, India, with a focus on maternity care, based on interviews with the hospitals' owners or senior staff, and observation. In the absence of reliable information on the number of private hospitals in the state, a physical listing was carried out in 11 districts and an estimate drawn up; 10% of hospitals found in each location were included in the study sample. We found poor standards of care in many cases, and few or no qualified nurses or a duty medical officer in attendance. Of the 261 hospitals visited, 146 provided maternity services yet 137 did not have a qualified midwife, and though most claimed they provided emergency care, including caesarean section, only three had a blood bank and eight had an ambulance. Government plans to promote public–private partnerships with such hospitals, including for maternity services, create concern, given our findings. The need to enforce existing regulations and collect information on health outcomes and quality of care before the state involves these hospitals further in provision of maternity care is called for. Read More


Medico-legal cases across various hospitals - A review & understanding of procedures

Sangeeta Rege
Published Year: 2011

Medico-Legal Update, 11(2), 2011, pp. 67-69.

Medico legal case is a case of injury or illness resulting out of sexual assault, poisoning or any suspicious circumstances, where the attending doctor, after eliciting history of the patient and on medical examination, decides that an investigation by law enforcement agencies is essential to understand establish and fix the criminal responsibility for the case in accordance with the law of the land in the interest of truth and justice of victim/patient and state. However it is crucial to assess what factors aid a Health care provider in determining which case becomes medico legal and whether this is a uniform practice across hospitals in India. Read More


Reflections on the high court’s dismissal of the ‘TISS rape case’

Sana Contractor
Published Year: 2011

Indian Journal of Medical Ethics, VII(4), Oct-Dec 2011, pp. 246-247

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Abortion and sex selection: Contentious issues in the campaign against sex selection

Sana Contractor
Published Year: 2011

The Urban World, Special issue on sex selection and PCPNDT act. 4(3), July-Sep 2011, pp. 13-17

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2010

Need for better governance in responding to cases of sexual assault in the health sector

Sana Contractor; Sangeeta Rege
Published Year: 2010

Paper presented in National Bioethics Conference, New Delhi, 2010.

Despite the well established role of the health sector in responding to cases of sexual assault, this issue remains a blind spot in health care governance. With no standard protocols in place for managing such cases, women and children reporting sexual assault continue to receive substandard care, and malfunctions of the health system result in lack of justice. This paper draws on the experience of engaging with the health sector to develop a comprehensive response to survivors of sexual assault. In 2008, we implemented an action project to streamline procedures in responding to sexual assault, at two peripheral municipal hospitals in Mumbai. This included implementation of a kit for sexual assault examination and forensic evidence collection, capacity building of health care providers, and provision of psychosocial support for survivors. Several gaps were found, with regard to consent seeking, admission procedures, treatment, and coordination with police and forensic laboratories, that rendered services inadequate and often impinged on the autonomy of survivors. The lack of protocols for preserving evidence provided scope for tampering. Health professionals considered their role to be largely medico-legal, and their ethical responsibility towards caring for the patient was compromised Some problems we encountered were rectified through formulating standard operating protocols and guidelines, which both compelled doctors to adhere to them and empowered doctors to defend their good practices. We end by critiquing the recent moves made by the government to implement guidelines for such cases and suggest how this could be better accomplished if services are provided to survivors of sexual assault in an ethical and comprehensive manner.


Challenges and dilemmas in institutionalising a crisis centre for women facing domestic violence in the public health system

Sangeeta Rege; Rupali Gupta
Published Year: 2010

Paper presented in National Bioethics Conference, New Delhi, 2010

Domestic Violence (DV), well recognised as a public health concern worldwide, is still missing, as a concern, from the Indian public health system. In public hospitals, which are the only viable health care option for a majority of the socio-economically marginalised population, the issue of DV is still on the distant horizon of public health reforms. Hence, CEHAT felt the urgent need to bring it on to the radar of the public health system. Dilaasa, the first public-hospital based crisis counselling centre in India, was established in collaboration with the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai in two public hospitals in Mumbai. Since 2001, Dilaasa has been engaged in providing counseling and psycho-social support services to women facing violence, and a training cell was set up to sensitise the hospital staff on DV. CEHAT was involved in demonstrating the crisis intervention model for DV response, merging the centre with the hospital’s medical services, and later in monitoring its services after handing over charge of both the centres to the hospital management in 2006. CEHAT implemented different mechanisms for monitoring of the centre, but ensuring the quality of services provided by the centre has always been a challenge. The hospital management provided infrastructure and resources for DV counselling and training, but issues such as transfers of deputed staff, a lack of reporting mechanisms or clear cut policies for referrals, and a lack of efforts to institutionalise the training cell, among others have been surfacing as on-going challenges. The Dilaasa experience highlights governance issues in institutionalising the issue of DV within a public health institution.


Equity through exemptions? User fees in a municipal hospital in Maharashtra

Raymus, Prashant; Kurian, Oommen C; Jui Ranade-Sathe
Published Year: 2010

Paper presented in National Bioethics Conference, New Delhi, 2010. (PPT)

In India, most states continue to collect user fees, despite the on-paper consensus that phasing out user fees is an urgent pre-requisite in achieving health equity goals. Despite the influx of funds through the National Rural Health Mission to improve the health care infrastructure, officials acknowledge that rogi kalyan samitis, that could potentially play a role in improving equity, are perceived by the public as a mere vehicle of user fee collection.

This paper will explore the ethical case against user fees in health. User fees were introduced purportedly to achieve the objectives of reducing frivolous demand, increasing revenue, improving quality and coverage, and rationalising patterns of care. Equity considerations were to be protected primarily through exemptions systems. In Maharashtra, user fees were introduced in 1988, and the scope and scale have been steadily increasing, with no visible effort at any rollback. Through a primary survey in a municipal hospital of Mumbai, the exemption systems in place and the efficiency of their implementation will be examined using qualitative interviews, while the flow of user fees collected will be mapped vis-à-vis the stated objectives, using secondary data sources. The status and relevance of these objectives will also be explored. About 50% of the primary data has been collected by conducting semi-structured in-depth interviews with the clinical and administrative staff of the facility. Data collection will be complete in October and at the conference, we will present our analysis and observations.


The third party in decision making: the role of web based medical facilitators in medical tourism

Suchitra Wagle
Published Year: 2010

Paper presented in National Bioethics Conference, New Delhi, 2010.

Cross border travel is now a decade-old phenomenon. Web-based health resources have emerged as an important aspect in seeking care. A new angle to this web-based information is the spurt of medical tourism facilitators in recent years. In no time, the facilitator has become the crucial connector of patients to the host country. These tourism facilitators guide medical travellers and navigate them through different countries, doctors and specialties providing combinations of arrangements. The facilitators tend to be numerous, operating without any ethical guidelines, influencing the decision making of the patients, but for the medical tourist it means more choices and wider variety. Little attention has been paid to the ethical aspects of the information provided by the facilitators, or the authenticity of it. The most remarkable factor is that, despite its origin in a developed country, it results in accelerating the movement of patients to a foreign third world country. This paper reviews and analyses the available web based information with special focus on the emergence and development of medical tourism facilitators and their present status. The paper deliberates on different kinds of facilitators, their characteristics and the way this would influence the medical traveller’s behaviour. It compares various facilitators across India, the USA and the UK. The paper indicates that though the field is at an early stage, some indicators emerge with regard to ethical standards.


Dealing with spousal violence

Padma Deosthali; Sangeeta Rege
Published Year: 2010

Indian Journal of Medical Ethics, October-December 2010, VII(4), pp.246-248

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A study to understand violence faced by female health workers: a need to develop hospital based response

Padma Deosthali; Sangeeta Rege
Published Year: 2010

In Second International Conference on Violence in the Health Sector, Congress Centre”De Meervaart”Meer en Vaart 300,1068 LE Amsterdam, The Netherlands. October 27 – 29, 2010, 249 p. (Poster)

Violating the law, yet thriving: study of private hospitals in Maharashtra

Padma Deosthali; Ritu Khatri
Published Year: 2010

Medico Friend Circle Bulletin, February – March 2010, No.339, pp.1-10

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Mapping of health facilities in Aurangabad

Dantas, Anandi
Published Year: 2010

Health Action, August 2010, 23(8), pp.34-36

Mapping of Urban Health Facilities in Maharashtra

Dantas, Anandi
Published Year: 2010

Paper presented in Seminar on Spatial Dimensions on Health Care use of GIS in Health Studies. Organised by CEHAT and Department of Geography, University of Mumbai, 24th September 2010

2009

Jan Swasthya Abhiyan: A Unique Health Movement Perspectives and Experience from Mumbai. In NGOs, Health and the Urban Poor

Pitre, Amita
Published Year: 2009

Edited by Vimla Nadkarni, Roopashri Sinha and Leonie D’Mello. Mumbai: Rawat Publications, 2009, pp.199-214

Urban Health Care: Issues and Challenges

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2009

In NGOs, Health and the Urban Poor. Edited by Vimla Nadkarni, Roopashri Sinha and Leonie D’Mello. Mumbai: Rawat Publications, 2009, pp.33-44

Establishing Dilaasa: A Public Hospital Based Crisis Centre, NGOs, Health and Urban Poor

Padma Deosthali; Seema Malik
Published Year: 2009

Edited by Vimla Nadkarni, Roopashri Sinha and Leonie D’Mello. Mumbai: Rawat Publications, 2009, pp.140-160

Attempted suicide a consequence of Domestic Violence: A Feminist response

Rege, Sangeeta; Padma Deosthali
Published Year: 2009

(paper submitted for publication) 2009, pp.16

Course on VAW and role of Health Care Providers: Bridging the gap in current medical discourse

Padma Deosthali
Published Year: 2009

(paper submitted for publication) 2009, pp.6

Implementation of Protocols to respond to Sexual Assault- Experiences from the field

Rege, Sangeeta; Sana Contractor
Published Year: 2009

"Proceedings of the International conference on gender-based violence and sexual and reproductive health, organized jointly by the National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank special programme of research, development and research training in human reproduction, World Health Organization and Indian Society for the study of reproductive and fertility, Mumbai, India 15-18 February 2009. February 15-18, 2009, Mumbai

This study provides an insight into our experiences of implementing the Sexual Assault Forensic Evidence collection Kit (SAFE Kit), a comprehensive protocol for evidence collection developed by Centre for Enquiry into Health and Allied Themes (CEHAT), for one year in two public hospitals in Mumbai, India. A protocol was implemented for evidence collection for cases of sexual assault accompanied by sensitization and capacity building of health professionals on the issue of sexual violence. Support services were also provided to the victims. The handling of victims of sexual assault in these hospitals was documented and several gaps in relation to obtaining consent, recording of history, preserving confidentiality of victims and provision of care were noticed even after comprehensive protocol had been implemented. The introduction of protocols ensured meticulous collection of medico-legal evidence and health care providers were enthusiastic about implementing them. However, the response was far from adequate when it came to providing the victim with holistic care, despite the fact that sensitization training had taken place along with implementation . of the protocol. The forensic role of health care providers took precedence in cases of sexual assault; therefore the aspect of care took a back seat. Solely an introduction of protocols will not substantially change the manner in which victims of Gender-based Violence (GBV) are treated by the health system. One time capacity building is also not 355 sufficient to change attitudes and undo biases. This requires a more fundamental change in the way medical education treats sexual assault. The preoccupation with medico-legal requirement of handling cases of sexual ass<;!ult must be replaced by an emphasis on providing holistic care to victims. Moreover, fear of the legal system and administrative rigmarole thwart the efforts of even sensitive providers. Demystifying legal obligation and modifying administrative procedures related to handling of victims and provision of holistic care will aid this process and make it easier for providers to respond sensitively.

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2008

Divided Destinies Unequal Lives: Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the Indian State, NGO report to the United Nations Committee on Economic Social and Cultural Rights

Padma Deosthali
Published Year: 2008

by People's Collective for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. New Delhi: PWESCR, 2008, 100 p...

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2007

Women's Empowerment : Budget as a Tool to Deal with the Gender Gap

Raymus, Prashant
Published Year: 2007

Special Issue on Gender Budgeting by National Resource Centre on Urban Poverty, UNDP, 2007, pp.53-61

Women at Work : Sick and Tired

Padma Deosthali
Published Year: 2007

Agenda Info change, 9, 2007, 46p

Adolescent Health and Human Rights Concerns

Chaudhari, Leni
Published Year: 2007

Health Action, October 2007, 20(10), pp.32-34

2006

Caring for Survivors of sexual Assault

Pitre, Amita
Published Year: 2006

Indian Journal of Medical Ethics. 3(3), July-September 2006, pp.90-92

Guidelines in India for the examination and treatment of survivors of sexual assault are inadequate. The guidelines that exist for some aspects may not serve the best interests of survivors or of legal procedures. This paper draws on formal and informal consultations to discuss some of the problems that arise due to the absence of standard guidelines in this context. Caring for survivors of sexual offences can involve several departments in a hospital, including casualty, gynaecology, paediatrics, radiology and forensics. Law enforcement agencies are also involved because medical evidence forms an important link in any investigation. Any lacunae on the part of any of these departments may result in a disservice to the survivor. However, a paucity of standard guidelines and reference material in India makes it difficult for health professionals to decide on how best to proceed in such cases.

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Right to Mental Health and the Barriers

Mahabal, Kamayani Bali
Published Year: 2006

Express Healthcare Management, 6(24), March 2006, 29 p.

Gender Equity and Millennium Development Goals

Mahabal, Kamayani Bali
Published Year: 2006

In The Macro Economic Policies and The Millennium Development Goals by Vibhuti Patel and Manisha Karne (eds.). Mumbai: Gyan Publications, 2006

Child Rights and law: One India One People

Mahabal, Kamayani Bali
Published Year: 2006

Vol.9, Issue 8, March 2006, pp. 42-44

Role of Health Professionals in addressing Family Violence

Padma Deosthali
Published Year: 2006

Paper presented at the International Seminar on Family Violence organsied by the Department of Sociology, Pune University. 2006

Combating Domestic Violence through the Health System: Lessons from Dilaasa: ISSRF Newsletter

Padma Deosthali
Published Year: 2006

A publication of the Indian Society for the Study of Reproductive and Fertility, pp.16-21

State-NGO Relationship in the Liberalised Scenario: Integral Liberation: A quarterly Review of Justice

Chatterjee, Chandrima; Paul, Sony
Published Year: 2006

Development and Social Change. 10(4), December 2006, pp.223-226

Child rights and laws

Mahabal, Kamayani Bali
Published Year: 2006

One India One People, 9(8), March 2006, pp. 42 - 44

2005

Bridging gender gap through budgets: Union budget 2005-06

Raymus, Prashant
Published Year: 2005

Budget Track, 3(1), July 2005. pp.18-19.

Women's health and their lives: A perspective from Maharashtra

Pitre, Amita
Published Year: 2005

Background paper presented at the Western Zone International Women and Health Meeting (IWHM) at Ahmedabad, Gujarat. 2nd March 2005, 9p

Sexual assault care and forensic evidence kit strengthening the case for use of the kit

Pitre, Amita
Published Year: 2005

presented at the 10th International Women and Health Meeting in New Delhi, India, from 21st to 25th September 2005, pp.6

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Role of health professionals: What to do in cases of sexual assault?

Pitre, Amita
Published Year: 2005

Women’s Global Network for Reproductive Rights Newsletter (Update No.4), 84(4), 2005, pp.2–3

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Case study of an attempt to institutionalize a model ‘Sexual Assault Evidence Kit’ to address care and evidence linked issues

Pitre, Amita
Published Year: 2005

Presented at the conference Lessons learnt from a rights based approach to health, organized by Emory University, Atlanta, USA, May 2005, 7p.

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Research with trans-gendered people

Bandewar, Sunita
Published Year: 2005

Indian Journal for Medical Ethics, 12(1), January 2005, pp.22-23

The rights based framework: Which way to go?

Phadke, Anant
Published Year: 2005

Medico Friend Circle Bulletin, 308, December-January 2005, pp.8-15

Sex Selection- unethical practice

Mahabal, Kamayani Bali
Published Year: 2005

Health Action, May 2005

Gender Equality and Millennium Development Goals

Mahabal, Kamayani Bali
Published Year: 2005

Samyukta: A Journal of Women Studies, 5 (1), January 2005, pp. 113-114

Where is the health agenda?

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2005

Express Healthcare Management, March 2005

The out of pocket burden of healthcare

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2005

Infochange Agenda, April 2005

Public hearings and litigation: The new medicine for policy reform

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2005

Express Healthcare Management, January 1- 15, 2005

Mumbai Demolitions– Drowned Under Tsunami

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2005

CEHAT, January 2005

Financing the NRHM

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2005

Paper presented at the national JSA consultation on NRHM, May 2005

Financing Strategies for Universal Access to Healthcare

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2005

Paper presented at Medico Friend Circle Conference, January 2005

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Decentralization of Health Services in India

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2005

Paper presented at the IAPSM National Conference, February 2005

Common Minimum Programme and Public Health

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2005

Paper presented at the National Consultation on Review of Common Minimum Programme of the UPA Government, May 2005

Budget 2005-06 – Whither Public Health Agenda

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2005

Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 30(2), April-June 2005

Should Case Documentations be used for Research?

Padma Deosthali
Published Year: 2005

Indian Journal of Medical Ethics, October - December 2005, 2(4), 129 p.

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Gender based violence and role of the Public health system for the State of Health Care Report

Deosthali, Padma; Maghanani, Poornima
Published Year: 2005

Mumbai: CEHAT, 2005

Involuntary Resettlement of a slum in Mumbai: A human rights perspective

Contractor, Qudsiya
Published Year: 2005

Urdhva Mula, 4(1), August 2005

Youth Health in India

Chaudhari, Leni
Published Year: 2005

Humanscape, 12(7), August 2005, pp.24-25

Technology and Gender Based Discrimination: Sex-Selection Techniques

Chaudhari, Leni
Published Year: 2005

Health Action, 18(10), October 2005, pp.13-15

The Gats: A Threat to Public Health, southern initiatives

Chaudhari, Leni
Published Year: 2005

Journal of Sustainable Development, 1(2), 2005, pp.89-92

Population Control: At What Cost

Chaudhari, Leni
Published Year: 2005

Health Action, 18(12), December 2005, pp.20-21

Our Little Girl: Child Marriage in India: An Overview

Chaudhari, Leni
Published Year: 2005

Communalism Combat, 12(112), November 2005, pp.32-33

Human Right Approach: A Paradigm Shift in Understanding Health

Chatterjee, Chandrima
Published Year: 2005

Express Healthcare Management, 6(11), June 16-30, 2005, pp.10-18

Accreditation of Hospitals: An overview

Chatterjee, Chandrima
Published Year: 2005

Express Healthcare Management, 6(16), September 1-15, 2005, pp.5-6

2004

Domestic violence and pregnancy

Saha, Shelley
Published Year: 2004

Health Action, 17(9), September 2004, pp. 11-13

Challenges in research in tribal communities: A response to a case study

Saha, Shelley
Published Year: 2004

Indian Journal of Medical Ethics, 4, October-December 2004

Need for a gender sensitive health care system

Pitre, Amita; Khaire, Bhagyashree
Published Year: 2004

Health Action, 17(9), September 2004, pp.17-19

Women in ayurveda

Pitre, Amita
Published Year: 2004

Engendering Health, April-June 2004

Achieving one more milestone

Phadke, Anant
Published Year: 2004

Health Action, 17(8), August 2004, pp. 33-34

Thiyya andolan in Krishna Valley

Phadke, Anant
Published Year: 2004

Economic and Political Weekly, 39(8), 21-27 February 2004, pp.775-777

The mirage of polio eradication

Phadke, Anant
Published Year: 2004

The National Medical Journal of India, 17(5), 2004, 282p.

The dismantling of public health system in India: What should be our approach?

Phadke, Anant
Published Year: 2004

Medico Friend Circle Bulletin, April-May 2004, pp.5-8

Price pangs– medicines too costly to be left to market forces

Phadke, Anant
Published Year: 2004

The Times of India, 1 December 2004

Achieving one more milestone

Phadke, Anant
Published Year: 2004

Health Action, August 2004, pp.33-34

A thorough critique of depo-provera

Phadke, Anant
Published Year: 2004

Book review of An epidemiological review of the injectable contraceptive, depo-provera, by C. Sathyamala. In Medico Friend Circle: Forum For Woman's Health, 2000. pp. 160

A healthy march against misuse of injection and saline

Phadke, Anant
Published Year: 2004

Health Action, April 2004, pp.22-24

Status of health care services in Madhya Pradesh: An overview

Nidhi, Amulya; Saha, Shelley
Published Year: 2004

Humanscape, 2004

They have a right to live with dignity

Mahabal, Kamayani Bali
Published Year: 2004

Health Action, 17(7), July 2004

Sex selection is abuse of genetic diagnostic technology

Mahabal, Kamayani Bali
Published Year: 2004

Express Healthcare Management, July 16-31, 2004

Right to health behind bars

Mahabal, Kamayani Bali
Published Year: 2004

Express Healthcare Management, 5(4), 1-15 March 2004, 14p

Infants have a right to be breastfeed: We need to stand up the aggressive marketing of infant milk formula products

Mahabal, Kamayani Bali
Published Year: 2004

Express Healthcare Management, January 1-15, 2004, 4(23), 15p

Healthy ageing and human rights

Mahabal, Kamayani Bali
Published Year: 2004

Express Healthcare Management, 5(20), 16-30 November 2004

Ensuring gender justice

Mahabal, Kamayani Bali
Published Year: 2004

Health Action, July 2004

Enforcing the right to food in India: The impact of social activism

Mahabal, Kamayani Bali
Published Year: 2004

Economic Social Review, South Africa, 5(1), March 2004

Emerging from shadows

Mahabal, Kamayani Bali
Published Year: 2004

Health Action, 17(9), September 2004, pp. 4-5

Dying with dignity- A human right?

Mahabal, Kamayani Bali
Published Year: 2004

ICFAI Journal of Healthcare Law, 2(4), November 2004, pp.28-36

CEHAT's PIL for reviewing diet scales in jail

Mahabal, Kamayani Bali
Published Year: 2004

Express Healthcare Management, 1-15 May 2004

Are the doctors listening?

Mahabal, Kamayani Bali
Published Year: 2004

Health Action, 17(10), September 2004, pp. 28-30

Access to essential drugs: a human rights issue

Mahabal, Kamayani Bali
Published Year: 2004

Health Action 17(12) September 2004, pp. 35-37

Urgent concerns on abortion services

Duggal, Ravi; Ramachandran, Vimala
Published Year: 2004

Economic and Political Weekly, 39(10), 6 March 2004, pp. 1025-1026

While the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act (MTP Act) has existed for 33 years, certified and legal abortion facilities account for only a quarter of all such private facilities in the country. Neither the public nor private abortion services have fully measured up to the needs of the abortion seekers

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The abortion assessment project- India: Key findings and recommendations

Duggal, Ravi; Ramachandran, Vimala
Published Year: 2004

Reproductive Health Matters, 12(24), November 2004 (Supplement), pp. 122–129

The Abortion Assessment Project–India, begun in August 2000, is one of the largest studies on abortion ever undertaken in India. This article synthesises the findings of the six facility surveys, two community-based surveys, eight qualitative studies, policy review and commissioned working papers that were produced as part of the project by researchers from across India. Public investment in abortion services nationally was found to be grossly inadequate. 75% of facilities were found in the private sector in the six states and were overwhelmingly perceived to give better services. Although some important changes were made in the 1971 Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act related to clinic certification and medical abortion, further changes during the second phase of the government's Reproductive and Child Health Programme are recommended, based on this research and state and national-level consultations organised by the project. These include integrating abortion services into primary and community health centres, increased investment in public facilities, promoting use of vacuum aspiration and medical abortion, convincing providers to stop using curettage, broadening the base of abortion providers by training paramedics to do first trimester abortions, and reskilling traditional providers to play alternative roles that support women's access to safe abortion services.

 


Unmet need for public healthcare services in Mumbai

Duggal, Ravi; Dilip, T. R.
Published Year: 2004

India Asia-Pacific Population Journal, 19(2), June 2004

Urban healthcare: Issues and challenges

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2004

Background paper for Urban Community Initiative: A Development Challenge of the Holy Family Hospital and Tata Institute of Social Sciences, July 2004

Tracing privatisation of health care in India

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2004

Express Health Care Management, 1-15 April 2004

The political economy of medical ethics

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2004

Indian Journal of Medical Ethics, I(3), July-September 2004 pp. 81-82

The political economy of abortion in India: Cost and expenditure patterns

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2004

Reproductive Health Matters, 12(24), November 2004 (Supplement) pp.130–137

 Access to abortion services is not difficult in India, even in remote areas. Providers of abortion range from traditional birth attendants to auxiliary nurse midwives and pharmacists, unqualified and qualified private doctors, to gynaecologists. Despite a well-defined law, there is a lack of regulation of abortion services or providers, and the cost to women is determined by supply side economics. The state is not a leading provider of abortions; services remain predominantly in the private sector. Abortions in the public sector are free only if the woman accepts some form of contraception; other fees may also be charged. The cost of abortion varies considerably, depending on the number of weeks of pregnancy, the woman’s marital status, the method used, type of anaesthesia, whether it is a sex-selective abortion, whether diagnostic tests are carried out, whether the provider is registered and whether hospitalisation is required. A review of existing studies indicates that abortions cost a substantial amount – first trimester abortion averages Rs.500–1000 and second trimester abortion Rs.2000–3000. Given the number of unqualified providers and with 15-20% of maternal deaths due to unsafe bortions, the costs of unsafe abortions must also be counted. It is imperative for the state to regulate the abortion economy in India, both to rationalise costs and assure safe abortions for women.

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The budget is a continuum of the erstwhile Government's policy


Published Year: 2004

Express Healthcare Management, 1-15 August 2004

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Pursuing the new health agenda through the new government

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2004

Express Health Care Management, 1-15 June 2004

Operationalising right to healthcare in India

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2004

ICFAI Journal of Healthcare Law, August 2004, Vol 2, No. 3, pp. 13-42

Health financing for primary healthcare in rural India: Prospects and options

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2004

Paper presented at IRMA National conference, December 2004

Primary healthcare in rural India is provided on the basis of a system of entitlements – a sub-centre with two health workers for 2500-5000 population, a 4-10 bedded primary health center with one doctor and various paramedic staff for 10,000-30,000 population, and a 30 bedded Community Health Centre with six doctors including basic specialists for every 5 PHCs. Apart from this there are sub-district and district hospitals for secondary level referral. While this is the stated norm not all states have as yet achieved these levels. These are reasonable levels (though not adequate or optimal) of provision provided all expected facilities in terms of staff, medicines, diagnostics, maintenance, transportation etc are adequately provided for. That is adequate resources are made available for these services to function optimally. In reality this does not happen even in a developed state like Maharashtra. This paper addresses issues related to resource mobilization and resource use in rural health services and develops a framework that can be used to improve allocative efficiency of existing resources as well as tapping additional resources. The paper begins with a review of rural health services, utilization and expenditure patterns, both in the public and private sector. It highlights the various dichotomies existing in the healthcare system vis-à-vis rural health services. It next looks at how resources are presently being used in the public health system and provides a critical and analytic assessment using data from Finance Accounts of various state governments, and uses an illustration from Maharashtra to highlight resource related concerns, constraints and opportunities within the state. After presenting the above analysis the paper goes on to develop a framework for a universal access healthcare system based on equity. It not only discusses the possibilities within the public system but goes beyond to present a comprehensive framework of a public-private mix which works on the principle of universal access and equity, debunking the iniquitous system of usercharges. The paper concludes with how the framework can be made workable, including a profile of financial requirements for the reorganized healthcare system.

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Healthcare and labour in India

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2004

Background paper for Observer Research Foundation National Consultation, August 2004

Health and healthcare in India: Responding to the changing scenario

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2004

Paper presented at the Observer Research Foundation National Consultation, January 2004

Financing healthcare in India: Prospects for health insurance

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2004

Express Healthcare Management, 5(4), 1-15 March 2004, pp.10-16

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Ethics, law and public action

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2004

Express Healthcare Management, 16-30 September 2004

Budget 2004: Is politics driving economics or vice versa?

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2004

Express Healthcare Management, 5(3), 16-29 February 2004, 6p.

Domestic violence and the health sector

Padma Deosthali
Published Year: 2004

Health Action, 17(9), September 2004, pp.14-16

2003

Maharashtra's health budget

Phadke, Anant; Shukla, Abhay
Published Year: 2003

Economic and Political Weekly, 22-28 February 2003, 38(8), pp.670

The right to health care moving from idea to reality

Shukla, Abhay
Published Year: 2003

Asian Social Forum, January 2003, 11 p.

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Healthcare: A right...and health for all

Shukla, Abhay
Published Year: 2003

Humanscape,'' X(9), September 2003, pp. 20-23

Offering contraceptive choices post-abortion: The ignored link by service providers

Saha, Shelley; Manasee, Mishra
Published Year: 2003

Paper presented in the Symposium on Expanding Contraceptive Choices: International and Indian Experiences and their Implications for Policies and Programmes,Mumbai 7-10 December 2003, 8 p.

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Dilaasa: Creating spaces for women in a public health system

Rege, Sangeeta
Published Year: 2003

Humanscape E-newsletter, March 2003, 5p.

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Right to health care: Towards an agenda

Phadke, Anant
Published Year: 2003

Economic and Political Weekly, 38(41), 11-17 October 2003, pp.4308-4309

By way of commemorating the 25-year old Alma Ata Declaration on health for all, the health movement organised a three-day programme on the right to health. Included were public submissions on denial of health care that illustrate the deterioration in the public health system.

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Profiteering in medicines

Phadke, Anant
Published Year: 2003

Economic and Political Weekly, XXXVIII(39), 27 September to 3 October 2003, 4070 p.

Is it wise to make hep B as part of NIP?

Phadke, Anant
Published Year: 2003

Express Healthcare Management, 16-28 February 2003, 14p.

Hep-B Vaccine: Some Issues

Phadke, Anant
Published Year: 2003

Economic and Political Weekly, 12-27 June 2003, 38(25), 2479 p.

Introducing the hepatitis B vaccine in the national immunisation programme would not only cost the government more than all the other six vaccines on the programme, but would yield little by way of public health protection. Read More


Hepatitis-B vaccine in national programme

Phadke, Anant
Published Year: 2003

Economic and Political Weekly, 37(52), 28 December to 3 January 2003, pp.5167-68

Independent analysis shows that introducing the Hepatitis-B vaccine in the national immunisation programme will yield small gains at high cost.

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Doctors do not have the right to refuse treatment to HIV-postive patients

Phadke, Anant
Published Year: 2003

Issues in Medical Ethics, 11(3), July-September 2003, pp.77-78

Public hospital based crisis centre: Experience from India

Padma Deosthali; Seema Malik
Published Year: 2003

Prepared for the 2nd Asia Pacific Conference on Sexual and Reproductive Health held in Bangkok, September 2003, 9p.

Why tar all Reasons for Euthanasia with a common brush?

Mahabal, Kamayani Bali
Published Year: 2003

Express Healthcare Management, 4(20), 1-15 November 2003, 18 p.

Health and human rights are inextricably intertwined

Mahabal, Kamayani Bali
Published Year: 2003

4(21), 1-15 December 2003, pp.15-17

Women's illnesses: Life cycle approach

Madhiwalla, Neha
Published Year: 2003

National Medical Journal of India, Supplement No.2, 16, 2003, pp.35-38

Help yourself

Madhiwalla, Neha
Published Year: 2003

Humanscape, 5(9), September 2003, pp.27-29

Wither user: Charges?

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2003

Express Healthcare Management, 4(15), 16-31 August 2003, 10p.

The notifiable disease syndrome

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2003

Express Healthcare Management, 4(9), 16-31 May 2003, 6p

Should public hospitals participate in medical tourism

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2003

Express Healthcare Management, 4(22), 16-31 December 2003, 11p.

Reducing inequities in financing healthcare: From self-financing to single payer mechanisms

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2003

Health Action, 16(3), March 2003, pp.4-7

In India, as elsewhere, those who have the capacity to buy health care from the market most often get it without having to pay (or it directly, and those who lh·c a hand-to-mouth existence are forced to make direct payments,often with a heavy burden of debt, to access health care ji-om the market.

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Privatisation of Healthcare in India

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2003

Novib Newsletter, The Hague, March 2003, 2p.

 

Historically India has always had a very large private health sector, especially for ambulatory healthcare services. These include providers of modern medicine as well as traditional practitioners. Hospital services until the mid-seventies were predominantly in the public domain. Medical education was almost a public monopoly until late eighties after which private sector grew rapidly but even today 75 per cent of outturn of medical graduates is from public medical schools. Post mid-seventies the State provided various incentives like concessional land and tax breaks for setting up of private hospitals and duty exemptions for imports. The private pharmaceutical industry also received substantial State patronage for its growth through process patent laws, subsidised bulk drugs from public sector companies and protection from MNCs. 

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Operationalising Right to Healthcare in India

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2003

Asian Social Forum, Hyderabad, January 2003 (also presented revised version at the CSIH International Conference on Right to Health Ottawa, Canada) October 2003, 26p.

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Health Services Database in the Context of National Health Accounts

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2003

Paper presented at a National Seminar, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi, September 2003, 28p.

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Health and healthcare in western and central India: The criticality of public finance

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2003

Paper presented at the National Seminar on New Developmental Paradigms and Challenges for Western and Central Regional States in India, GIDR, Ahmedabad. March 2003, 18p.

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Have we failed to provide health services to children?

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2003

Express Healthcare Management, 4(6), 1-15 April 2003, 7p.

Do charitable hospitals deserve tax benefits?: All tax benefits should be withdrawn

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2003

Express Healthcare Management, 4(17), 16-30 September 2003, 11p.

Declining trends in public health expenditure in Maharashtra

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2003

July 2003, 11p.

This analysis of the trends in public health expenditure in Maharashtra shows that the State has to become more proactive in raising resources being allocated to the health sector. The level of public health spending is very low in the state, both as a ratio within the state budget and as a proportion to the SDP. Read More


Condoms in HIV control

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2003

Express Healthcare Management, 4(12), 1-15 July, 2003, 11p

Community health plan is nothing new

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2003

Express Healthcare Management, 4(5), 16-31 March 2003, 3p

Abortion economics- cost and expenditures

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2003

Seminar, 532, December 2003, pp.47-52

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Burden of paying for Hospitalization Care Services in India

Dilip, T. R.
Published Year: 2003

Health Action, 16(3), March 2003, pp. 8-11

Crisis counselling in domestic violence

Padma Deosthali; Burte, Aruna
Published Year: 2003

October 2003, 12 p. (Submitted to Journal of Mental Health)

Utilization and expenditure on delivery care services: some observations from Nashik district, Maharashtra

Duggal, Ravi; Dilip, T. R.; Balaji, Rajeswari
Published Year: 2003

Regional Health Forum, 7(2), 2003, pp.34-41

2002

Creating a Consensus on the Right to Health Care

Shukla, Abhay
Published Year: 2002

Paper presented at National Meeting on Right to Health Care, Mumbai, February 14, 2002, 6 p.

Gender Gaps in Research on Health Services in India

Saha, Shelley; T. K. Sundari, Ravindran
Published Year: 2002

Journal of Health Management, Vol.4(2), 2002, pp. 185-214

Pharmaceutical Policy, 2001: industry wish-list

Phadke, Anant
Published Year: 2002

Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 37(6), February 9-15, 2002, pp. 528 – 529

In attempting to ensure that the pharmaceutical industry is able to function profitably, and perhaps, efficiently, policy-makers have completely ignored the health concerns that are integrally linked to the contours of the drug policy.

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Dams And Development

Phadke, Anant
Published Year: 2002

Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 37(11), March 16-22, 2002, pp. 1016

Dam oustees in Satara district of Maharashtra recently scored a signal victory, when their ‘sit-in struggle’ resulted in the acceptance of their demands by the state government, including those on water allowance and equitable distribution of water. The agitators in Satara have thus managed to continue their tradition of struggle in the quest for development.

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Critical Issues in Regulatory Provisions for Private Medical Sector

Phadke, Anant
Published Year: 2002

Presented at the workshop on Concerns of the Mall Hospitals in the NGO Sector, Hyderabad, March 22, 2002, 4 p.

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Building Pressure from Below

Phadke, Anant
Published Year: 2002

Health Action, Vol. 15(7), July 2002, pp. 28-30

Aajara Struggle

Phadke, Anant
Published Year: 2002

Mumbai:CEHAT, January 2002, 4 p. (Accepted for publishing in Health Action)

Health Care Services: A Far Cry?

Nidhi, Amulya
Published Year: 2002

Health Action, Vol.15(7), July 2002, pp. 35-36

Does Better Reproductive Health Status Mean Low Fertility Levels? Evidence from Asian Countries

Dilip, T. R.; Mishra, U.S.
Published Year: 2002

Health and Population- Perspective and Issues,' Vol. 25(2), 2002, pp. 65-73

Monitoring Right to Health in India

Khot, Anagha; Menon, Sumita
Published Year: 2002

Paper presented at the Annual meet of the International Federation of Health and Human Right organisation, Netherlands, May 27, 2002, 12 p.

Selective Versus Universal Hepatitis B Vaccination in India

Kale, Ashok; Phadke, Anant
Published Year: 2002

Paediatrics Today, Vol. 5(4), July 2002, pp. 199-207

This paper compares the cost–efficiency of Selective and Universal hepatitis-B vaccination of newborns in India. Part-I critically examines this comparison made by Aggarwal and Naik (the only such comparison in India). It argues that firstly Aggarwal-Naik have measured cost-efficacy in terms reduction in HBsAg-pool and not in terms of reduction in the highly infectious and highly pathogenic HBeAg pool. Secondly in their cost-calculations, they have made biased, unrealistic assumptions about cost of the Selective Vaccination programme, which renders their exercise invalid. Thirdly, the data they have used, itself shows that Selective Vaccination of newborns of HBsAg positive mothers would reduce the HBeAg pool by 40% by immunizing just about 4 % of the newborns; epidemiologically a very attractive option. Part-II compares the cost efficacy of Selective versus Universal hepatitis-B vaccination strategies in India. The Selective vaccination strategy that we propose consists of in year I, identifying all the HBsAg positive mothers through antenatal screening and vaccinating their newborns within 24 hours of birth. This would protect about 40% of the newborns from the risk of HBeAg positivity by vaccinating only the 3% of the newborns, and the programme would cost one fourth of the programme of Universal Vaccination of all the newborns. Logistically also it would be a far better strategy. From year II onwards, only the HBsAg positive primis would be detected and their newborns will be vaccinated, along with vaccinating subsequent newborns of the cohort of HBsAg positive mothers, identified in year I. This subsequent annual screening of only the primis would, without reducing its efficacy, reduce the annual cost of the Selective Vaccination Programme from year II onwards, to only 8% of the annual cost of Universal Vaccination. In our epidemiological and socioeconomic situation, eradication of hepatitis–B is neither warranted nor possible in the next 50 years even with Universal Vaccination. This fact strengthens the case for this highly Selective Vaccination strategy .

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Urban Poor and Unmet Need for Public Health Services in Mumbai

Duggal, Ravi; Dilip, T. R.
Published Year: 2002

Paper presented at the Urban Symposia, World Bank, Washington DC, December, 2002, 23 p.

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Resource Generation Without Planned Allocation

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2002

Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 37(1), January 5-11, 2002, pp. 16-19

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Health Planning In India

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2002

India Health: A Reference Document, Kottayam, April 2002, pp. 43-56

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Fiscal Reforms Under a New Health Policy

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2002

Presented at the 29th Annual Conference of the Global Health Council 28-31 May 2002, Washington Dc, USA, May 2002, 20 p.

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Utilisation of Reproductive and Child Health Care Services: Some Observations from Kerala

Dilip, T. R.
Published Year: 2002

Journal of Health Management. Vol. 4(1), 2002, pp. 19-30

Understanding Levels of Morbidity and Hospitalization in Kerala, India

Dilip, T. R.
Published Year: 2002

Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, Vol. 80(9), 2002, pp. 746-751

Sex Selection and the Law

Contractor, Qudsiya
Published Year: 2002

Combat Law, Vol. 1(1), April–May 2002, pp. 69-70

Women's Access to Good Quality Abortion Care Services

Balaji, Rajeswari
Published Year: 2002

Paper presented at the first International Conference Medical Sociology, Health, Illness and Society in the New Millennium organised by the Madras Medical Mission, Institute of Cardio-Vascular Diseases, May 25 – 26, 2002, 5 p.

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2001

The Right to Health Care

Shukla, Abhay; Pitre, Amita
Published Year: 2001

''Advocacy Internet, Volume 3(5), September – October 2001, pp. 5-8

The Nutritional Crisis In Madhya Pradesh

Shukla, Abhay
Published Year: 2001

Paper presented at the State JSA Convention, Bhopal, (Section Submitted as an input for the MP-Human development Report, 2001) April 7, 2001, 15 p.

Right to Health Care

Shukla, Abhay
Published Year: 2001

Health Action, Vol. 14(5), May 2001, pp. 6-10

Notes on the Politics of Health Care in M.P.: Towards a Critical Analysis of the Situation of Health and Health Care

Shukla, Abhay
Published Year: 2001

Paper presented at the meeting of Jan Swasthya Abhiyan and Jan Sanghars Morcha, Betul, January 3-4, 2001, 14 p.

Studies on Health Services with Special Focus on Reproductive Health Services in India from 1990 to 2000: A Critical Review

Saha, Shelley; T. K. Sundari, Ravindran
Published Year: 2001

Paper presented at the workshop Reproductive Health Research Review Dissemination, Mumbai, June 2001, 25 p.

Waking up the System

Pitre, Amita
Published Year: 2001

Humanscape, 8(9), October 2001, pp. 8-10

Health Rights Experiments

Pitre, Amita
Published Year: 2001

Health Action, Vol. 14(5), May 2001, pp. 11-14

Cast-Class Dynamics in Relief Work

Nidhi, Amulya
Published Year: 2001

MFC Bulletin, No. 284-285, May-June 2001, 10 p.

A Stakeholder approach towards Hospital Accreditation in India

Nandraj, Sunil; Khot, Anagha; Menon, Sumita; Brugha, Ruairi
Published Year: 2001

Health Policy and planning: A Journal on Health in Development, Vol. 16(2), December 2001, pp. 70-79

Accreditation has been recommended as a mechanism for assuring the quality of private sector health services in low-income countries, especially where regulatory systems are weak. A survey was conducted in Mumbai, India, in 1997-98 to elicit the views of the principal stakeholders on the introduction of accreditation and. what form it should take. There was a high level of support for the classical features: voluntary participation, a standards-based approach to assessing hospital performance, periodic external assessment. by health professionals, and the introduction of quality assurance measures to assist hospitals in meeting these standards. Hospital owners, professional bodies and government officials all saw potential -though different -advantages in accreditation: for owners and professionals it could give them a competitive edge in a crowded market, while government officials reckoned it could increase their influence over an unregulated private market. Areas of disagreement emerged; for example, hospital owners were opposed to government or third party payment bodies having a dominant role in running an accreditation system. The growing strength of a health service user representative lobby in Mumbai is an additional reason why this would be a suitable place for piloting such a system. The biggest obstacle to introducing accreditation in poorly resourced settings, such as India, is in how to finance it. The provisional support of the principal stakeholders for such a development, demonstrated in this study, will require a commitment from government and policymakers if the potential benefits of accreditation to the health of the population are to be realised.

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Dalits and Health

Menon, Sumita; Contractor, Qudsiya
Published Year: 2001

Paper presented at The World Conference against Racism and Zenophophobia and related discrimination, South Africa, Derban, August 2001, 6 p

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Sex Selection: Ethics in the Context of Development

Madhiwalla, Neha
Published Year: 2001

Issues in Medical Ethics, October-December 2001, Vol.9(4), pp. 125-126

Less Trouble for the Little Ones

Duggal, Ravi; Bandewar, Sunita; Menon, Sumita
Published Year: 2001

The Telegraph, May 2001 1 p.

Health Systems Profile in Maharashtra, a monograph prepared for ICRIER/WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health

Duggal, Ravi; Kamath, Rajashree; Dilip, T. R.
Published Year: 2001

June 2001, 4 p.

Health And Nutrition In Maharashtra in Human Development Report - 2002

Duggal, Ravi; Dilip, T. R.
Published Year: 2001

published by Government of Maharashtra, October 2001, 54 p.

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Utilisation of Health Care Services in India

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2001

Presented at the National Consultation on Health Security in India organised by IHD and UNDP, July 2001, 14 p.

Missing Girls: Political Economy of Sex-Determination

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2001

Presented on World Population Day at the Institute of Population Sciences, July 2001, 7 p.

Discrimination against the girl child and women is an old tradition in India, as it has been all over the world. Forms of discrimination have undergone changes over time and in many parts of the world open and obvious forms of discrimination have disappeared. However, in India and a few other countries around it the open forms of discrimination not only continue but also are getting exacerbated through use of new technologies and with the connivance of professionals, especially medical professionals. Here we will not go into the entire gamut of discrimination against the female of the species but restrict ourselves to sex-determination and sex-selective abortions which have caused havoc over the last two decades and are clearly manifested in rapidly declining juvenile sex-ratios.

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Health Policy in India- A Historical Review

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2001

Paper Prepared for ICRIER/WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, April 2001, 57 p.

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Health Policy in India

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2001

Health Action, October 2001, 8 p.

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The Burden of III Health Among Elderly in Kerala

Dilip, T. R.
Published Year: 2001

Research and Development Journal, Vol. 7(2), February-May 2001, pp. 7-15

Networking for Women’s Studies and Activities

Deosthali, Padma
Published Year: 2001

Samvadini, Vol. 3(1), September 2001, pp. 18-19

Dilaasa an Endeavor to Sensitise the Public Health System to Domestic Violence

Deosthali, Padma
Published Year: 2001

Samyukta- A Journal of Women's Studies, Vol. 2(2), 2001, pp. 327-329

Code of Ethics for Health Research

Khot, Anagha; Menon, Sumita; Deosthali, Padma; Barai, Tejal
Published Year: 2001

Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 34(3), January 20-26, 2001, pp. 196-198

Social science research involves certain vital ethical issues – respect for all those involved in research, their rights and protection. Ensuring ethics in research, as the ethical guidelines seek to do, would help complement research, rather than hinder it. A debate on the draft code of ethics held in May 2000 sought to evolve a consensus among researchers across the country. These initial steps would help fill long-perceived lacunae as well as seek to resolve ethical dilemmas plaguing researchers.

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Abortion Legislation and Access to Safe Abortion Care Services: The Indian Experience

Bandewar, Sunita
Published Year: 2001

In Advocating for Abortion Access: Eleven Country Studies, Johannesburg, Klugman Barbara and Debbie Budlender (eds.), University of Witwatersrand, 2001, pp. 135-155

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Voluntarism and Elder Care

A., Asharaf
Published Year: 2001

Social Welfare, October 2001, pp. 17-18 con.. pp. 23-24

2000

Putting Health on People's Agenda

Phadke, Anant; Shukla, Abhay
Published Year: 2000

Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 35(33), August 12-18, 2000, pp. 2911-2912

Village Health Care is Our Right

Shukla, Abhay
Published Year: 2000

Health Action, November 2000, pp. 16-17

Unsafe Abortion

Saha, Shelley
Published Year: 2000

Frontier, Vol. 33(1), July 30 - August 5, 2000, pp. 13-14

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Safe and Legal Termination - A Distant Reality

Saha, Shelley
Published Year: 2000

Humanscape, Vol. VII(IX), September 2000, pp. 32-33

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Adolescents and their need for sex-education

Saha, Shelley
Published Year: 2000

Health for the Millions, September - October 2000, pp. 10-12

Young individuals aged 10-19 comprises over one-fifth of our country’s population. They are growing in number and yet they are the most deprived generation when it comes to access to information, services and policy recommendations. Therefore, if their development is overlooked it can take enormous proportions.

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Status of Health Care Services in Madhya Pradesh: An Overview

Nidhi, Amulya; Saha, Shelley
Published Year: 2000

2000, 5 p. (Accepted for publication in Health for the Millions, 2003)

Accreditation System for Hospitals in India

Nandraj, Sunil
Published Year: 2000

Paper submitted to Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Government of India, New Delhi and The World Bank, 'May 2000, 8 p.

Globalisation, Economic Reforms and the Indian Economy: An Overview

Nadkarni, Avadhut
Published Year: 2000

March 2000, 29 p.

In this overview, we examine the effects of globalisation and liberalisation on the Indian economy. These macroeconomic and sectional effects form the background to the study of the effects of globalisation on women's work, environment and health in the subsequent parts of this report.

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Violence and Health Care Professionals: The Crucial Link

Khot, Anagha; Menon, Sumita; Deosthali, Padma
Published Year: 2000

Paper presented at the Regional south East Asia Workshop on Impact of Gender based Violence on the Health of the Women held on April 5th -7th 2000, organised by society for Operations Research and Training and CORT), April 2000, 7 p.

Understanding the Gender and Household Dimensions of Health in the Context of Economic Change

Madhiwalla, Neha
Published Year: 2000

March 2000, 10 p.

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Gender-Sensitive and Community-based Programme for Mumbai Slum Women

Khot, Anagha; Menon, Sumita
Published Year: 2000

Arrows for Change, Vol. 6(1), May 2000, 3 p.

Where are we Today?

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2000

Seminar, No. 489, May 2000, pp. 15-19

We are into year 2000 but where is “Health For All” as vowed by WHO member nations at Alma Ata in 1978? Year 2000 was selected to be that magical year by when all people of this world were projected to have access to primary health care. Since then the situation has barely changed. The countries that could not provide basic health care to its people then, continue to be unable to do so even today. It is not as if there is a lack of resources – more drugs are produced, the private health sector has grown geometrically, people are spending much more out of pocket, newer technologies are available etc – but those not having access to primary health care have increased in numbers.

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Save Public Health Campaign

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2000

Paper for the Campaign, July 2000, 5 p.

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Reforming Health Policy for Universal Health Care

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2000

MFC Bulletin, No. 278-279, November-December 2000, pp. 10-18

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Private Health Sector in India: A Critical Review

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 2000

Paper for PHA Booklet No. 5, May 2000

Gender Issues Related to Women's Health Care

Saha, Shelley; Choudhary, Manoj
Published Year: 2000

Health Action, Vol. 13(9), 2000, pp. 18-19

Ethics in Social Sciences and Health Research: Draft Code of Conduct

CEHAT
Published Year: 2000

Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XXXV(12), March 18-24, 2000, pp. 987-991

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The Role of the World Bank in International Health: Renewed Commitment and Partnership

Jesani, Amar; Baru, Rama
Published Year: 2000

Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 50, 2000, pp. 183-184

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Ethical Guidelines in Social Science Research: A Small Step

Barai, Tejal
Published Year: 2000

MFC Bulletin, No. 276-277, September-October 2000, pp. 18-20.

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Doing Ethical Research

Barai, Tejal
Published Year: 2000

In Alliance, Vol. 3, September 2000, 2 p.

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Unsafe Abortion

Bandewar, Sunita
Published Year: 2000

Seminar, Issue 489, May 2000, pp. 39-43

Women in India are fortunate in having access to legal abortion services, made possible through the Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) Act, 1971. The act passed by the Indian Parliament is considered revolutionary for it allows women to both avail abortion care due to failure of contraception and have access to abortion without the husband's consent.

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Prescription Pattern of Diagnostic Tests in Public and Private Hospitals in India

Dilip, T. R.
Published Year: 2000

Health for the Millions, Vol. 28(1), April-May 2000, pp. 42-43

People Come Forth to Treat the Doctors

Phadke, Anant; Shukla, Abhay; Nidhi, Amulya; Kunte, Prasanth
Published Year: 2000

Health Action, Vol. 13(8), August 2000, pp. 24-26

1999

Population and family planning policy: A critique and a perspective

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1999

Paper Presented at International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, September 1999, 6 p.

The Department of Family Welfare, of the Central Govt. says, "The Family Welfare Program in India is being promoted on voluntary basis as a people's movement in keeping with the democratic traditions of the country. The program seeks to promote responsible parenthood, with a two-child norm - male, female or both - through independent choice of the family planning method best suited to the acceptor. For conveying message of small family norm to the masses, motivational, educational and persuasive efforts are made without any resort to any form of coercion" (Family Welfare Program in India - Year book 1989-90, Department of Family Welfare, GOI, New Delhi, pg. 48). This is how the government views its family planning program, which it never tires highlighting that it was the first official program of population control in the world! I have deliberately begun with the above quote because not only is it full of lies but it also drives in many home truths about the governments' perceptions.

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Health Movement in India

Phadke, Anant; Shukla, Abhay
Published Year: 1999

Health Action, Vol.12(12), December 1999, pp. 6-9

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Advocacy for Right to Health Care

Shukla, Abhay
Published Year: 1999

MFC Bulletin, No. 262-63, July-August 1999, pp. 7-10

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Some Critical Issues in the Epidemiology of Hepatitis B in India

Kale, Ashok; Phadke, Anant
Published Year: 1999

Paper Presented at the Medico Friend Circle Meet, July 1999, 10 p.

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Age at Menarche Among Indian Women: Observations from NFHS, 1992-1993

Padmadas; Dilip, T. R.
Published Year: 1999

Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 45(2), October 1999, pp. 71-79

Self-Regulation of Hospitals: A Private Sector Initiative in Mumbai City, India, QA Brief

Nandraj, Sunil
Published Year: 1999

Quality Assurance Project, University Research Corporation, Bethesda, USA, Vol. 8(2), 1999, 2 p.

Making Private Hospitals Accountable

Khot, Anagha; Menon, Sumita
Published Year: 1999

Humanscape, Vol. 6(5), May 1999, pp. 15-17

Violence and the Battering of the Mind

Madhiwalla, Neha
Published Year: 1999

Perspectives, March 1999, pp. 3–4

Health Professionals and Community Action Against Violence

Madhiwalla, Neha
Published Year: 1999

Issues in Medical Ethics, Vol. 7(1), January-March 1999, 29 p.

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Role of the Community and the Health Profession in Responding to Violence

Khot, Anagha; Menon, Sumita; Deosthali, Padma
Published Year: 1999

Curare 22, 1999, pp. 35-37

The article attempts to explore the various dimensions of intrafamilial violence in a community set-up and the factors influencing it in this environment. It also highlights the key role of the health professionals in responding to violence and the role of the community in preventing violence and caring for the victims of violence.

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Accreditation: A New Beginning

Khot, Anagha; Menon, Sumita
Published Year: 1999

Health Action, Vol. 12(8), August 1999, pp. 32-33

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Whither Medical Technology?

Jesani, Amar
Published Year: 1999

Medisite, Vol. 1(1), January 1999, pp. 4-6

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Barriers to the Quality of Care: The Experience of Auxiliary Nurse - Midwives in Rural Maharashtra

Jesani, Amar; Iyer, Aditi
Published Year: 1999

In Improving Quality of Care in India's Family Welfare Programme: The Challenge Ahead, Michael A. Koenig, M. E. Khan (eds.), New York: Population Council, 1999, pp. 210 – 237

Women's Perspectives on the Quality of General and Reproductive Health Care: Evidence from Rural Maharashtra

Gupte, Manisha; Bandewar, Sunita; Pisal, Hemalata
Published Year: 1999

In Improving Quality of Care in India's Family Welfare Programme: The Challenge Ahead, Michael A. Koenig and M. E. Khan (eds.), New York: Population Council, 1999, pp. 117-139

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Health Effects of Forced Evictions in the Slums of Mumbai

Emmel, N. D.; D'Souza, Lalitha
Published Year: 1999

The Lancet, Vol. 354(9184), September 1999, 118 p.

Private Sector's Clout

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1999

Health Action, Vol. 12(9), September 1999, pp. 44-45

Malaria in a Tribal Village in Madhya Pradesh: The Government's Response to an Epidemic

D'Souza, Lalitha; Emmel, Nick; Nidhi, Amulya
Published Year: 1999

CEHAT, January 1999, 13 p

A Quarter Century of Legalised Abortion Services: A Country Situationer for India

Bandewar, Sunita
Published Year: 1999

Paper Presented at an International Dialogue on Reproductive Choice Organised by Likhaan, Manila, Philippines, 1999, 22 p.

1998

Epidemic diseases: Whose baby it is?

Nandraj, Sunil
Published Year: 1998

''Background paper for the Medico Friend Circle annual meet on Resurgence of Epide mic Diseases, Wardha, Maharashtra,'' January 1-3, 1998, 3 p.

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Towards relevant and accessible public health services

Mistry, Mani
Published Year: 1998

Paper Presented at Forum For Health Promotion, Workshop on Structure of the Existing Health Care Service Situation in Mumbai City, Mumbai, June 23-24, 1998, 7 p.

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Health rights of the urban poor

Mistry, Mani
Published Year: 1998

Paper Presented at the Medico Friend Circle Annual Meet on Resurgence of Infectious Diseases and the Indian Society, Wardha, January 1-3, 1998, 7 p.

Right to Health is intrisincally linked to Right to Life which is enshrined by the Constitution of India as Fundamental Right of every citizen. It thus logically becomes the duty of the state to ensure the Right to Health for all its citizens. The article 47 of the Constitution under the directive principles also reinforces the state's responsibility towards improving the public health. - " The state shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and, in particular, the state shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health". The article 47 of the constitution thus sees the states responsibility even beyond medical care, to responsibility towards good nutrition and living standards. Health related responsibilities are mentioned in the state as well as concurrent list; public health and sanitation, hospitals and dispensaries fall within the state list, while health care items like drugs and poisons, legal, medical and other professions, prevention of extension from one state to another of infections or contagious diseases or pests affecting men, animals or plants fall in the concurrent list.

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Women, development and health redefining the relationship

Madhiwalla, Neha
Published Year: 1998

Paper Presented at the National Seminar on The Rights to Development, University of Mumbai, December 10-11, 1998, pp. 1-8

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The case of intra-dermal route hepatitis-B vaccination

Kale, Ashok; Phadke, Anant
Published Year: 1998

3 p.

Our argument in brief - The annual cost of hepatitis B immunization of all the newborns alone in India would be Rs. 250 crores, whereas the budget for TB control in India this year is only Rs. 105 crores. Given such a high cost, all options to reduce the cost of Hepatitis -B immunization need to be seriously considered in detail. This cost can be reduced to one-fifth if intradermal route is used. Majority of the published studies show that i.d. route is as effective as i.m./s.c. route and that acceptability by the people is not a problem.

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Violence and health care profession: Towards a campaign for medical neutrality

Jesani, Amar
Published Year: 1998

Radical Journal of Health, Vol. III(3), July-September 1998, pp. 143-156

Violence Against Women: Health Issues

Jesani, Amar
Published Year: 1998

WHO Country Profile: India, 1998, 20 p. (Draft Submitted to WHO/VHAI).

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Health Workers and Strikes: Ethics and Rights

Jesani, Amar
Published Year: 1998

Issues in Medical Ethics, Vol. VI(3), July-September 1998, 73 p.

Every time health workers go on strike, a battle is waged not only between strikers and their managements, but also between the right to strike and the ethics of not doing so(1,2,3,4). The latter battle appears to be important, for it raises some controversial issues. A strike is an extreme action, which threatens the livelihood of many strikers if it fails or is crushed. Therefore, at such times fence sitters and doubters are as disliked by strikers as by their opponents. Debates at the time of a strike are often motivated by strikers immediate need for survival and the state's resolve to crush the struggle. The former normally uses the language of rights while the latter of morality. Abstract morality usually projects strikers as 'oppressors' of unattended patients, and supports the real oppressor.

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Health, Section for the Women's Health and Development

Jesani, Amar
Published Year: 1998

WHO COUNTRY PROFILE: India, 1998, 34 p. (Draft Submitted to WHO/VHAI)

From Philanthropy to Human Right: A Perspective for Activism in the Field of Health Care

Jesani, Amar
Published Year: 1998

Indian Journal of Social Work, Vol. 59(1), (Special Issue Towards People-Centred Development – Part 2), January 1998, pp. 291-320

The paper begins with a historical evaluation of health care in India and the developed countries and then tries to analyse the existing health care services in our country. It highlights how health activism of the last three decades has raised people's consciousness and concerns for health issues. In the last few years activism has shifted from experimentation in provision to the demand for better provision and control over providers. The paper concludes with suggestions for encouraging the emergence of a health movement.

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Women's Reproductive Health, Section C3.7 of the Women's Health and Development, Country Profile, India

Iyer, Aditi
Published Year: 1998

1998, 41 p. (Draft Submitted to WHO/VHAI)

Women's Access to Health Care, Section C3.7 of the Women's Health and Development, Country Profile, India

Iyer, Aditi
Published Year: 1998

1998, 46 p. (Draft Submitted to WHO/VHAI)

Leading Causes of Morbidity and Mortality, Section C3.1 of the Women's Health and Development, Country Profile, India

Iyer, Aditi
Published Year: 1998

1998, 34 p. (Draft Submitted to WHO/VHAI)

Making a Health Services Database: A Discussion Note

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1998

A Review and Feasibility Report of the ICSSR Data Archives Committee, New Delhi, April 1998, 6 p.

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India's Socio-Economic Database: A Review and a Critique

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1998

A Resource Document Prepared for Lead India, New Delhi, March 1998, 13 p.

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Health Care as Human Right

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1998

Radical Journal of Health, 3(3) (New Series), July-September 1998, pp. 141-142.

If all people, irrespective of their economic or social status are to have access to health care, then the state has to play a more decisive role in ensuring access to such care. This is possible only if health care is regarded as a right.

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Health Care and New Economic Policies: The Further Consolidation of the Private Sector in India

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1998

Paper Presented at the National Seminar on the Rights to Development, University of Mumbai, December 10-11, 1998, 13 p.

Economic reforms towards liberalisation began in the early eighties. The classical 'Hindu' rate of growth in the eighties had doubled from 3% to 6%, without much inflation and with declining levels of poverty. Thus we were already liberalising our economy and speeding up growth without the World Bank running the show. Infact, the post (1991)-reform period slowed down growth, increased poverty and inflation, and reversed many trends of the eighties. Today health care has become fully commodified and the private sector is the dominant provider of health care globally, as well as in India. New medical technology has aided such a development and the character of health care as a service is being eroded rapidly. This process of commodification has created a unique characteristic of the health sector making health care a supply-induced demand market. Provision of routine medical care for a wide range of diseases and symptoms in India is mostly in the private sector. As regards the public sector the large investment in health care is being wasted due to improper planning, financing and organisation of the health care delivery system. While public health services are inadequate to meet peoples health care needs the private health sector whatever be its quality and / or effectiveness has filled the gap. Private medical practice flourishes almost everywhere. Medical practice in India is a multi-system discipline and in addition is also burdened with a large number of unqualified practitioners. Private general practice is the most commonly used health care service by patients in both rural and urban areas. This translates into a whopping Rs.400 to 600 billion private health care market in the country at today's market prices. This large private health care market has grown with direct and indirect state support. The government provides concessions and subsidies to private medical professionals and hospitals to set up private practice and hospitals. The government has pioneered the introduction of modern health care services in remote areas by setting up PHCs. While the latter introduces the local population to modern health care it also provides the private sector an entry point to set themselves up. Construction of public hospitals and health centres are generally contracted out to the private sector. In recent years the government health services have introduced selectively fee-for-services at its health facilities. The government has allowed the private health sector to proliferate uncontrolled. The above are a few illustrations of how the state has helped strengthen the private health sector in India. In today’s liberalised scenario, and with World Bank’s advice of limiting state's role to selective health care for a selective population, the private health sector is ready for another leap in its growth. And this will mean further appropriation of people's health and a worsening health care scenario for the majority population. 2 Finally a very clear impact one sees is declining state investments in the health sector. New medical technologies have helped complete the commodification of health care and this has attracted increased interest of the corporate sector that has jumped into the health care business in a very big way. This has led to the further consolidation of the private health sector in India.

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A New Health Policy for Health Sector Reforms

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1998

Paper Presented at the International Seminar on Emerging Public Health Issues in South Asia, AMCHSS, Thiruvananthapuram, (Also presented at the 3rd International conference on Priorities in Health Care, Amsterdam, November 200), May 1998, 16 p.

A policy document is essentially the expression of ideas of those governing to establish what they perceive is the will of the people. A health policy is thus the expression of what the health care system should be so that it can meet the health care needs of the people. Until 1983 there was no formal health policy, the latter being reflected in the discussions of the National Development Council and the Central Council of Health and Family Welfare, and the Five Year Plan documents and/or occasional committee reports. As a consequence of the global debate on alternative strategies during the seventies, the signing of the Alma Ata Declaration on primary health care, and the recommendations of the ICMR-ICSSR Joint Panel, the government decided that the above fora may have served the needs in the past, but a new approach was now required. The health policy of 1983 was the first effort at an official policy statement. There are three questions that need addressing. Firstly, have the tasks enlisted in the 1983 NHP been fulfilled as desired? Secondly, were these tasks and the actions that ensued adequate enough to meet the basic goal of the 1983 NHP of providing "universal, comprehensive primary health care services, relevant to actual needs and priorities of the community"? And thirdly, did the 1983 NHP sufficiently reflect the ground realities in health care provision? The conclusion is that the present paradigm of health care development has in fact raised inequities, and in the current scenario of structural adjustment the state of health care is only getting worse. Hence, the need for a new policy framework to bring about health sector reforms which would make primary health care accessible to all without any social, geographical or financial inequities. The paper begins with a review and critique of the 1983 health policy, develops a rationale for a new health policy, defines a framework for health sector reforms, argues for structural changes within the context of a universal health care approach and evolves the framework of a model. Further, the paper projects resource requirements of the reformed structure and how it could be financed. And finally it raises policy issues that will need to be addressed in order to make such a system work.

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Human Rights Violence and Health


Published Year: 1998

CEHAT's Work on Human Rights and Health Care 1991-98, October 1998, 18 p.

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Aparamedics in MR Practice: A Feasibility Evalution

Bandewar, Sunita; Pisal, Hemalata; Lele, Mugdha
Published Year: 1998

Paper Presented for The State Level Consultation on Issues Related to Safe and Legal Abortion, Pune, June 7, 1998, 27 p. (Paper Accepted for Publication in the Economic and Political Weekly)

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Paramedics in Menstrual Regulation Practice: A Feasibility Evaluation

Bandewar, Sunita
Published Year: 1998

Paper Presented for The State Level Consultation on Issues Related to Safe and Legal Abortion, Pune, June 7, 1998, 8 p. (Paper Accepted for Publication in the Radical Journal of Health)

This paper explores the feasibility of paramedic MR service providers in India. An effort has been made to compile experiences of paramedic MR service providers from developed as well as developing countries. The case of Bangladesh has been considered in particular because of its similarity to India with regard to socio-cultural systems, bureaucracy, concerns for population rise, health care system, women’s general status & health status. Based on these experiences, a feasibility exercise has been suggested for India. The cost-effectiveness in medical and social terms is important while considering this option. MR as a method of abortion in early phases of pregnancy clearly offers women, especially rural women, more choices for fertility control/reproductive health care. The short term as well long term benefits may outweigh the perceived risks involved through non-coercive and woman-oriented means. However, benefits of paramedic MR service providers will be realised only if a workable ‘evaluation and monitoring system’ is developed and implemented. Maintaining the quality of care becomes a prime responsibility of all those involved. Besides technical, financial and human power related factors, motivation & intention for conducting MR and the commitment to self-help approach will play a major role in MR training and its delivery.

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Menstrual Regulations as an Abortion Method: A Socio-Medical and Legal Evaluation to Explore its Promotion in India

Bandewar, Sunita
Published Year: 1998

Paper Presented for The State Level Consultation on Issues Related to Safe and Legal Abortion, June 1998, 22 p. (Paper Accepted for Publication in the Radical Journal of Health)

The present paper explores the applicability of menstrual regulation (MR) as an abortion method in the Indian context. While doing so, MR method is evaluated socio-medically and legally. Effort has also been made to evaluate its feasibility in terms of resources and acceptability to providers and users in India. Evaluation is based on a review of literature on various aspects of MR of the last 25 years. This exercise of socio-medical, legal and feasibility evaluation of MR builds a strong case for its promotion to bring down abortion related morbidity and mortality, to enhance the opportunities for potential users to avail of contraceptive services, to reduce the psychological burden of guilt borne by the women for undergoing an abortion, to reduce the intensity of emotional trauma that they experience for having had an abortion. Finally, the paper also discusses the constraints in promoting MR in India and strategies to overcome them. Against this backdrop, the paper emphasises the critical role of the Information-Education-Communication (IEC) component and the need to incorporate it officially in the MR promotion policy.

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Access To Abortion Services: Taking A Stock Of Impediments

Bandewar, Sunita; Pisal, Hemalata; Lele, Mugdha
Published Year: 1998

Paper Presented for The State Level Consultation on Issues Related to Safe and Legal Abortion, Pune, June 7, 1998 (Paper Accepted for Publication in the Economic and Political Weekly), 27 p.

1997

Standards: The heartbeat of hospitals

Nandraj, Sunil; Khot, Anagha; Menon, Sumita
Published Year: 1997

Background Paper for the Seminar on Ethics in Health Care, Organised by Indian Medical Association, Mumbai, November 1997.

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Unhealthy Prescriptions: The Need for Health Sector Reform in India

Nandraj, Sunil
Published Year: 1997

Informing and Reforming: The Newsletter of the International Clearing house of Health System Reform Initiatives ICHSRI, April-June 1997, pp. 7-11

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Morbidity among women in Mumbai city: Impact of work and environment

Jesani, Amar; Madhiwalla, Neha
Published Year: 1997

Economic & Political Weekly, 37(43), October 25, 1997, pp. 38-44

This paper reports a study of the morbidity of a small population in Mumbai city. The results point to a strong relationship between women's work lives and their health. It also points to the need to understand and integrate the labour of women in producing children and raising them, in keeping the household running in any exploration of women's health status

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Notes from the field

Madhiwalla, Neha
Published Year: 1997

Humanscape, Vol. 4(4), April 1997, pp. 28-31

A need for accountability: What is needed today is not privatisation of health services but their accessibility to all without any financial barriers

Jesani, Amar
Published Year: 1997

Humanscape, 4(12), December 1997, pp. 19-20

Abortion needs of women in India: A case study of rural Maharashtra

Gupte, Manisha; Bandewar, Sunita; Pisal, Hemalata
Published Year: 1997

Reproductive Health Matters, No. 9, May 1997, pp. 77-86

 The Indian Medical Termination Of Pregnancy Act Came Into Force In1972, In Response To The Highmortality And Morbidity Associated With Illegal Abortion. However, 25 Years On, Both Restrictions In The Law And The Way It Is Implemnted Through Service Delivery Have Failed To Meet The Abortion Needs Of Large Number Of Women. Using Data From A Larger Qualitative Study In Rural Maharashtra, This Paper Explores Women's Perceptions Of Their Rights And Needs In Relation To Abortion. The Women Were Ambivalent About Abortion, Based On Their Roles And Identity As Mothers, But They Saw The Necessity For Barotion Andsupported Each Otherto Have Abortions. They Had Conflicting Feelings With Regards To Abortion On Grounds Of Fetal Sex, And Problematic Issues Of Sexuality, Especially For Single Women In Relation To Abortion, Also Arose. Provided With The Details Ofindia's Abortion Legislation, Which They Knew Little About, The Women Had Suggestions For Making The Law More Women-sensitive. Their Experiences Make It Clear That Vast Improvements In Abortion Policy And Service Delivery Are Needed In India.

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Health Care Budgets in a Changing Political Economy

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1997

Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 32(20-21), May 17-24, 1997, pp. 1197-1200

A meaningful analysis of recent health budgets can only be made in the context of the direct and indirect encouragement given by the state to the growth of the private sector in the health services. First, the slowing down of state investment in the hospital sector and the subsidies, soft loans and duty and tax exemptions offered; second the creation of a market for modern health care through the setting up of PHCs and cottage hospitals in the rural area, and third the consistent expansion in highly qualified medical personnel who could not be absorbed on the state sector.

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Abortion: Cause for concern in India, Even 25 years after legalisation

Bandewar, Sunita
Published Year: 1997

Paper Prepared Sixth National Conference of Women's Movement at Ranchi, Bihar, December 28-30, 1997, 7 p.

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1996

Physical standards in the private health sector

Nandraj, Sunil; Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1996

Radical Journal of Health, 2(2-3), April-September 1996, pp. 141-184

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Social action and advocacy for health care reforms

Jesani, Amar
Published Year: 1996

erspectives in Social Work, 11(2), May-Aug 1996, pp. 16-18

Social activists have been demanding reforms in health care services for a very long time. The new economic policy (NEP) and the structural adjustment programmes (SAP), officially stated by the government since 1991, have only made the need to take action in the field of health care very urgent. The international experiences of SAP have conclusively shown that health care is one of the important components of the social sector which is getting adversely affected by the governments attempt to reduce its expenditure. In our country there are several reasons why such an adverse impact on health care is going to be very severe. Such an impact is as much due to the kind of health service system that exists as the high level of existing poverty. We shall not fo into the latter, namely how the NEP and SAP could accentuate poverty and the problems of the poor. We shall explain briefly what it could do and is doing to make health care accessible to the people. That will be followed by our suggestions on the strategy that the social activists could employ.

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Response of health care professionals and services to epidemic of violence in India: - A review

Jesani, Amar
Published Year: 1996

14th International Conference on the Social Sciences and Medicine Peebles Hotel Hydro, Scotland, 2-6 September 1996, 8 p.

 The mainstream social sciences in India have largely ignored the fact that India is a very violent society. Although the investigation and documentation of political violence was started in a systematic manner by many small voluntary groups and the media much earlier (the 19 months of State of Internal Emergency in the mid 1970s provided impetus to it), the mainstream social sciences had not taken sufficient interest in the phenomenon. The other forms of social and political violence, viz. gender, caste, communal etc. were also analysed inadequately. However, the decade of 1980s has heralded some change. For example, three edited volumes by Prof. A.R. Desai (1986, 1990, 1991) and in his recent study of Gujarat (with D’Costa, 1994) have brought together collection of documents and writings on the political violence and violation of democratic rights which would have otherwise found less recognition in the social science discourse. Similarly, social scientists have also started paying attention to the communal violence and violence against women. For example, the works of Asgharali Engineer, Veena Das (1992), Flavia Agnes (1990, 1992), Chhaya Datar (1992), Vibhuti Patel and many others have done much needed conceptual and empirical work on the subject. Due to their work certain types of violence which suffered from social taboos, such as rape, wife beating, child abuse etc have now found a place in the social science discourse and in the campaigns of concerned organisations. In fact, these concerns have altered the political agendas of many social and political movements. At the same time this has brought in its wake more concern for the victims and survivors of violence.

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Medical ethics and professional self-regulation: Some recommendations

Jesani, Amar
Published Year: 1996

Health for the Millions, 22(4), July-August 1996, pp. 24-29

In last one decade the health care professionals have been severely criticised both for being indifferent to their social responsibility and for not regulating themselves. As patients become more aware of their rights and the market in health care continues to operate without restraints exercised as a part of the self regulation, it is not difficult to foresee the emergence of new demands for imposing regulations on health care by the state. There is increasing evidence to suggest that, harassed by the rising cost of health care, the middle classes and the poor would welcome regulations. However, experience of the historical developed countries show that if such regulations are not accompanied by holistic planning to make health universally accessible to people, they invariably become self-defeating by encouraging the monster of private health insurance and the finance capital. The US is a classical example of having highest number of regulations over the health care market and yet, such regulations have neither brought down the cost of health care nor made consumers as well as providers happy. In fact, the increasing dominance of private insurance companies and corporations have encroached upon the professional independence of providers and done nothing to achieve the social goal of making health care universally accessible. Thus, the health care providers in our country will soon be required to make a choice between external regulations and the genuine self-regulations in tune with their social responsibility and the goal of achieving health care ethics.

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Crisis of credibility: The tale of medical councils

Iyer, Aditi
Published Year: 1996

Health for the Millions, Vol.22(4), July-august 1996. pp. 17-20

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Women's Role in Decision Making in Abortion: Profiles from Rural Maharashtra

Gupte, Manisha; Bandewar, Sunita; Pisal, Hemalata
Published Year: 1996

Paper Prepared for XIV International Conference of the Social Science and Medicine at Peebles, Scotland, September 1996, 23 p.

National disease control programmes: Recent trends in financing

Nandraj, Sunil; Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1996

Radical Journal of Health, 2(1), (New Series), January-March 1996, pp. 86-91

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India's family welfare program in the context of a reproductive & child health approach: A Critique and a Viewpoint

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1996

MFC Bulletin, No.234-235, September-October 1996, 7 p

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A note on health care and financing Strategies for the Ninth Five Year Plan

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1996

Sub-group on Health Financing Strategies, (Planning Commission, New Delhi, April 1996), 10 p.

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1995

Note for research project on health of child labourers in India

Sinha, Roopashri
Published Year: 1995

Mumbai: CEHAT December 1995, 6 p

Medical ethics: General principles

Pilgaokar, Anil
Published Year: 1995

Medical Ethics, 3(2), April-June 1995, pp. C5-C8

Cost of medical care: Issues of concern in the present scenario

Nandraj, Sunil
Published Year: 1995

Paper Presented at the All India People's Science Network, Seminar on Health for All Now, New Delhi, November 1995, 13 p.

This paper examines the financial aspects of various components in the health care delivery system of the country. It attempt's to highlight some of the major issues of concern that need to be addressed in the present economic scenario. Read More


Beef up the health budget

Nandraj, Sunil
Published Year: 1995

The Metropolis (Anniversary Special), 4-5 February 1995, 1 p.

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The doctor's dilemma: A supreme court judgement on death by hanging violates

Jesani, Amar; Vadair, Asha
Published Year: 1995

Humanscape, March 1995, pp. 12-13

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In the pink: Need for asserting patients' Rights

Jesani, Amar; Pilgaokar, Anil
Published Year: 1995

Keemat, 24(3), March 1995, pp. 12-14

The medical fraternity must be made accountable for their actions. And patients, as consumers of medical treatment, must have the right to health education. Dr. Amar Jesani and Dr. Anil Pilgaokar talk about the need for asserting patient’s rights

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Abortion: Who is responsible for our rights

Jesani, Amar; Iyer, Aditi
Published Year: 1995

In Our lives, Our Health, New Delhi, Coordination Unit, World Conference on Women, Beijing, Edited by Malini Karkal, August 1995, pp. 114-130

Through history, women have practised forms of birth control and abortion. These practices have generated intense moral, ethical, political and legal debates since abortion is not merely a technomedical issue but "the fulcrum of a much broader ideological struggle in which the very meanings of the family, the state, motherhood and young women's sexuality are contested" (Petchesky R.P, 1986: vii). Women have overtly or covertly resorted to abortion, but their access to services has been countered by the imposition of social and legal restrictions, many of which have origin in morality and religion. The norms governing the ethics of abortion have been constantly remoulded to suit the times and the social contexts in which they are set. Despite the dissimilarities in their construct, intent and orientation, these norms have invariably been directed to the fulfilment of social needs that do not recognise women's right to determine their sexuality, fertility and reproduction. This paper reviews the abortion scenario with particular reference to India. A brief historical account of the role of the medical profession in criminalising and decriminalising abortion services is followed by a discussion on the politics of abortion in India. An analytic review of the abortion situation in India provides the reader with information about legal and illegal abortions and the paper concludes by placing the issue of abortion in the context of social (rather than individual) needs and rights.

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Violence and the ethical responsibility of the medical profession

Jesani, Amar
Published Year: 1995

Medical Ethics, 3(1), January-March 1995, pp. 3-5

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Law, ethics and medical councils: Evolution of their relationships

Jesani, Amar
Published Year: 1995

Medical Ethics, 3(3), July-September 1995, pp. C9-C12

Abortion: An alternative to family planning?

Jesani, Amar
Published Year: 1995

1995, 2 p.

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Women, health and development

Gupte, Manisha; Karkal, Malini; Sadgopal, Mira
Published Year: 1995

Radical Journal of Health, 1(1), January-March 1995, pp. 25-36

Health expenditure across states- Part II

Nandraj, Sunil; Duggal, Ravi; Vadair, Asha
Published Year: 1995

Economic & Political Weekly, 30(16), 22 April 1995, pp. 901-908

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Health expenditure across states- Part I

Nandraj, Sunil; Duggal, Ravi; Vadair, Asha
Published Year: 1995

Economic & Political Weekly, 30(15), 15 April 1995, pp. 834-844

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Underdevelopment of conservation and conservation of underdevelopment

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1995

Paper Presented at the International Symposium on 'What if the Indigenous People Reject Our Conceptions of Environment, Berne, October 1995, 8 p.

Public health budgets: Recent trends

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1995

Radical Journal of Health, 1(3), (New Series), July-September 1995, pp. 177-182

Our health costs little in our lives

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1995

In our lives, our health, New Delhi, Coordination Unit, World Conference on Women, Beijing, Edited by Malini Karkal, August 1995, pp. 54-59

Health sector financing in context of women's health

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1995

Paper Presented at the National Seminar on Gender, Health and Reprodution, ISST, New Delhi, November 1995 and As ISST Occassional Paper No. 4/96, New Delhi, November 1995, 15 p.

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Health expenditure patterns in selected major states

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1995

Radical Journal of Health, 1(1), January 1995, pp. 37-48

Health of Child Labourers in India

Sinha, Roopashri
Published Year: 1995

December 1995, 6 p.

1994

New moves: The Indian Drug Scene

Pilgaokar, Anil
Published Year: 1994

Voices, 2(3), 1994, pp.22-24

Beyond the law and the lord: Quality of private health care

Nandraj, Sunil
Published Year: 1994

Economic and Political Weekly, 29(27), 2 July 1994, pp. 1680-1685

Although the private sector in health care is large and growing, it is poorly regulated with hardly any regard to quality of care. The World Bank paper on ‘Health Financing in India’ and the ‘World Development Report 1993’ advocated privatization and liberalization of the health sector. How relevant are these policy prescriptions for he Indian context? What exactly is the nature if the private health sector in India? What are the regulatory and monitoring in this sector? The private health sector is a large and important constituent in the country's health care delivery system. The share of the private health sector in India is sector is between 4 to 5 percent of the Gross Domestic Product. This share at today's prices works out to between Rs. 16,000 crore and Rs. 20,000 crore per year. India probably has the largest private health sector in the world (Duggal and Nandraj, 1991). This sector has enlarged greatly in the post independence period, especially in the 80s. A substantial financial burden of households is for meeting health care needs (1). This gains significant when we realise that nearly half of the country’s population does not have enough resources to meet its food requirements. Compared to state expenditure on health the private household expenditure is nearly four to five times more than that of the state (Duggal and Amin, 1989).

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Assessing the Need for and Designing an Accreditation System: Situation in India

Nandraj, Sunil
Published Year: 1994

Paper Prepared as Consultancy for Institute of Health Systems, Hyderabad,'' August 1994. 10 p

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The unregulated private health sector

Jesani, Amar; Nandraj, Sunil
Published Year: 1994

Health for the Million, 2(1), February 1994, pp.25-28

The health care service sector in India has come of age. Both in terms of the medical human power and physical size as well as investment and expenditure in health care, this service sector has become vast and vibrant though it is still maldistributed and the average quality of services not commensurate with what it is capable of achieving.

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Medical ethics: In the context of increasing violence

Jesani, Amar
Published Year: 1994

Presented at the Indian Medical Association Workshop on Medical Ethics and Ethos in Cases of Torture, at New Delhi, 25-27 November 1994, 7 p

Doctors and hunger strikers

Jesani, Amar
Published Year: 1994

Humanscape, June 1994, pp.7-9, pp. 29

Is it the Doctor’s duty to force-feed hunger strikers? Or is he only required to explain the pros and cons of their decision to them?

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Health finance of the Brihan-Mumbai Municipal Corporation

Nandraj, Sunil; Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1994

Background paper for Medico Friend Circle, Mumbai Group's workshop on improving public hospitals in Mumbai, May 1994, pp. 37-44

The number game

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1994

Humanscape, November 1994, pp. 20-22

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The great divide

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1994

Humanscape, October 1994, pp. 14-15

Population meet: Poor impact of NGOs

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1994

Economic and Political Weekly, 29(38), 17 September 1994, pp. 2457-2458

People's economy: context and issues from India

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1994

Paper Presented at Seminar on Market Economy for the Poor, Berne, Switzerland, May 1994, 14 p.

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For a new health policy: A discussion paper

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1994

Paper Presented at the Study Circle Organised by the MFC/FMES/ACASH, Mumbai, August 1994, 13 p.

Health care utilisation in India

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1994

Health for the Millions, 2(1), Feb 1994, pp. 10-12

1993

Sexism in medicine and women's rights

Prakash, Padma; George, Annie; Rupande, Panalal
Published Year: 1993

The Indian Journal of Social Work, Focus Issue, Patients' Rights, LIV(2), April 1993, pp. 199-204

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New approaches to women's health: Means to an end?

Prakash, Padma
Published Year: 1993

Economic and Political Weekly, 28(51),18 December 1993, pp. 2783-2786

Does the new concept of reproductive health care being currently promoted enthusiastically by the health establishment and the population lobby really incorporate the deep concerns of the women's movement? Will it mean that women will get a better deal in health care?

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Patient's autonomy: Throwing it to the winds?

Jesani, Amar; Pilgaokar, Anil
Published Year: 1993

Medical Ethics, 1(1), August-October 1993, pp. 6-7

Women and Abortion

Jesani, Amar; Iyer, Aditi
Published Year: 1993

Economic and Political Weekly, 27 November 1993, pp. 2591-2594

Women and their right to determine their sexuality, fertility and reproduction are considerations that have seldom, if ever, been taken into account in the formation of policies related to abortion.

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Medical ethics and patients' rights

Jesani, Amar
Published Year: 1993

The Indian Journal of Social Work, Focus Issue, Patients' Rights, 54(2), April 1993, pp. 173-188

On being normal (Whatever that is)

Gupte, Manisha
Published Year: 1993

MFC Bulletin, No. 197-201, August 1993, 6 p

State of health care in Maharashtra: A comparative analysis

Nandraj, Sunil; George, Alex
Published Year: 1993

Economic and Political Weekly, 28(32-33), 7-14 August 1993, pp. 16712-1683

Health indicators of Maharashtra and Punjab show that they have attained relatively high growth against the background of a high per capita income (PCI) and good economic development while Kerala shows a good development in the health sector in the context of low PCI, low level of industrialisation but relatively good infrastructural indicators. While the first pattern could be attributed to the trickling down effect of capitalist modernisation of the industrial-cum-agrarian variety in Maharashtra and of predominantly agrarian variety in Punjab, the second is rooted in socio-political, geographic and demographic particularities of Kerala. This article looks into the specifics of Maharashtra's development in health in the context of other socioeconomic indicators to examine the relationship between health sector development and capitalist growth.

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User charges and patients' rights

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1993

The Indian Journal of Social Work, Focus Issue, Patients' Rights, 54(2), April 1993, pp.193-197

The impact of NIP-NEP on labour

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1993

Paper Presented at Seminar on impact of new industrial policy on labour, MILS/AILS/MKI, Mumbai, January 1993, 5 p

Health humanpower in India

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1993

Paper Prepared as National Consultant on WHO Project, for the Ministry of Health, New Delhi, August 1993, 20 p

1992

Medical ethics: Awaiting a patients' movement

Jesani, Amar; Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1992

New Delhi: Voluntary Health Association, 1992, pp. 365-375

Consumers and the medical community

Jesani, Amar
Published Year: 1992

Christian Medical Journal of India, 1992, pp. 5-7

Trends in family planning policy and programs

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1992

Paper Presented at Seminar on Trends and Perspectives for FP in the Nineties, Mumbai Union of Journalists, August 1992, 15 p

Resurrecting Bhore: Re-emphasizing a universal health care system

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1992

MFC Bulletin, No. 188-189, November-December 1992, pp. 1-6

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Regional disparities in health care development: A comparative analysis of Maharashtra and other states

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1992

Paper Presented at the National Workshop on Health and Development in India, NCAER/Harvard University, Delhi, January 1992, 20 p

Cost and concern in primary health care

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1992

Health Action, 5(8), August 1992, 11 p

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1991

Repression of health professionals

Jesani, Amar
Published Year: 1991

Economic and Political Weekly, 5 October 1991, pp. 2291-2292

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Regulating the private health sector

Nandraj, Sunil; Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1991

MFC Bulletin, No. 173-174, July-August 1991, pp. 5-7

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Private health expenditure

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1991

MFC Bulletin, No. 173-174, July-August 1991, pp. 14-16

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Ending the underfinancing of primary health care

Duggal, Ravi
Published Year: 1991

MFC Bulletin, No. 177-178, November-December 1991, pp. 7-9

Marathi and Hindi Publications