@surbhi_karwa| April 22,2020
R, an unmarried woman, who returned to her hometown, due to lockdown, gets beaten daily at the hands of her abusive father.
Another woman, S, a married woman, had to lock herself in a room to save herself from her abusive husband.
Yet another woman, K, finds herself being raped daily by her husband who had left her 8 years ago, only to return during this lockdown.
These are few of the stories shared by feminist social workers during a webinar which was recently organized with an aim to discuss the gendered impact of global pandemic COIVD19
While the governments and policymakers are strategizing to battle the global pandemic, the issue of domestic violence against women amidst the lockdown has received little or no attention from them. The pandemic of violence against women remains effectively ‘ignored’ and ‘condoned’ by the policymakers. It is the ‘shadow pandemic’ as Mr Antonio Guterres, the Secretary-General of the United Nations has called it.
Thus, today, millions of women are finding themselves virtually in ‘prison’ with their abusers battling what can literally be described as ‘custodial violence’.
It is in this background that the webinar on ‘Women & the Pandemic: The Challenge of Domestic Violence’ was organized by Law and Society Committee (NLSIU, Banglore) in collaboration with Centre for Women and the Law (NLSIU, Banglore) and The Leaflet.
Sangeeta Rege (Coordinator, CEHAT), Ms Anuradha Kapoor (Director, Swayam), Ms Adrija Bose, (Associate Editor, News 18), Prof. Jhuma Sen (Centre for Human Rights Studies, Jindal Global Law School), Ms T.K. Rajalakshmi (Senior Deputy Editor, Frontline) Padma Deosthali (Public Health Expert, CEHAT, Bihar) and Ms Indira Jaising (Senior Advocate and Founder, Lawyers Collective) were the panellist in the session. Prof. Sarasu Esther Thomas (Professor of Law, NLUSIU) moderated the session.
Following are the key highlights of the session:
Historically, disease outbreaks and pandemics are known to amplify the existing social hierarchies and impact the vulnerable groups (including women) disproportionately. Highlighting the same, it was noted during the webinar that the impact of COVID19 is also not gender-neutral. Women are the unaccounted victims of COVID19.
With the lockdown, the unpaid and invisible care work of women has increased many-fold leading to a mental and emotional health crisis for women. While the men are discovering the poets and writers in them, the women have been shown the way to the kitchen. Working women are doubly suffering, juggling between paid office work and unpaid household work.
The panellists observed that the sharpness of gender norms and patriarchal division of labour has further intensified during this lockdown. Domestic violence and rigid patriarchal gender norms are anyway, ‘everyday pandemic’ for women even without lockdowns. But with the global pandemic, the everyday pandemic of domestic violence has come into clear focus.
Another of patriarchy’s favourite claim, which came into sharp focus in the webinar, was the claim of the supposed safety of ‘home’ for women. ‘Home is the safest. Stay home, stay safe’ is the global norm enforced over the past few weeks to control the spread of the virus. But the panellists observed that for women battling domestic violence, home is not a ‘safe’ zone, it is the zone of beating, abuses, rape and many other physical-non physical violence.
Discussing the gendered and complex nature of the institution of home, Prof Jhuma Sen (Centre for Human Rights Studies, Jindal Global Law School) remarked that, “The pandemic has re-established what feminist scholars have been arguing for years that home is not safe, it is the most intimate site of gender violence.”
The fundamental reason, discussed during the webinar, for this shadow pandemic is an apathetic abdication of responsibility by the policymakers. It was noted that the policymakers have failed to plan and anticipate the possibility of violence against women.
In this regard, Ms T.K. Rajalakshmi (Senior Deputy Editor, Frontline) remarked that “This (lack of planning and anticipation) is perhaps the result of general apathy towards this (women’s) constituency amongst policymakers.”
It was observed that there has been a complete lack of effective and accessible political messaging from governments against violence against women. The Government of India, the Ministry of Women and Child Development, various state Women and Child Departments have squarely failed to communicate that domestic violence and resultant violation of the dignity of women, will not be tolerated.
In this reference, Ms Adrija Bose, (Associate Editor, News 18) pointed out that the different helpline numbers set up by different agencies have been found to be wanting in their response Further, with the wide gender gap in access to technology for women, these helpline numbers, email addresses, WhatsApp numbers may not reach out to all women in need.
There is an urgent need of making zero tolerance towards domestic violence part of political messaging and political agenda. The message of women’s dignity and protection from domestic violence needs to be communicated immediately and effectively.
Another reason behind this shadow pandemic is the limited access to the legal machinery under the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 for survivors during the lockdown.
Sharing this concern, Ms Anuradha Kapoor (Director, Swayam) highlighted that state has not allocated any safe spaces for a stay of survivors and assigned shelter homes are also denying entry to survivors in fear of the spread of the virus. There are no transport facilities available for shifting women to safe homes. The issue of domestic violence is also not a high priority for over-burdened police officers. And most importantly, non-functioning of protection officers, legal aid services and even courts has limited the avenues of legal remedies for women.
Ms Indira Jaisingh (Senior Advocate and Founder, Lawyers Collective) suggested that police officers should be declared protection officer under the act of 2005 so that deterrence can be induced in the abusers. She further suggested that lawyers should also be declared ‘protection officers’ under the act of 2005 so that they are allowed to file the Domestic Incident Report (DIR) without waiting for the protection officer.
An important strategy for ensuring timely and adequate response by state machinery for women facing domestic violence, suggested during the webinar, was to declare the Crisis Centre and Counselling Centre for Women as ‘essential service’.
Declaration of Crisis Centre and Counselling Centre will reduce various practical challenges in reaching to survivor women amidst the lockdown and would increase the effectiveness of state response.
In this reference, Dilasa Crisis Centre working for psycho-social support to survivors are a relevant example. 13 hospital-based Dilasa crisis centre working in the Central and Western Mumbai have been recognized as essential services by concerned authorities so that the support to survivors is not stopped
Sharing the experience of working of Dilasa Crisis Centre, Sangeeta Rege (Coordinator, CEHAT) highlighted that reaching out to shelter homes in advance, issuing specific ID-card to Dilasa team members, ensuring transport facility for mobility, preparing resource directory of NGOs and community services and developing specific guidelines for handling domestic violence during lockdown are few of the strategies adopted by the Dilasa centres in tackling the domestic violence cases.
Similarly, Padma Deosthali (Public Health Expert, Bihar) working with ‘Sajha’ (an initiative by Care India) in Bihar also highlighted the need of re-orienting training, protocols and guidelines in responding to challenge of domestic violence amidst lockdown. She specifically emphasized on the need of ensuring access to reproductive and contraceptive health for women during the lockdown.
Thus, with the declaration of support systems as essential services and effective planning, survivors can be supported, as for example of Dilasa and Sajha shows.
In conclusion, the most important lesson learnt during the webinar is that only when adequate political messaging and effective access to support is ensured by the policymakers that the women would be able to face the ‘shadow pandemic’. If that fails, women would be forced to suffer silently with nowhere to go.
Gender bias permeates many aspects of medicine in India, the WHO acknowledged the need for integration of gender into medical curricula. CEHAT, in collaboration with DMER and MUHS to facilitate gender perspectives in medical education in Maharashtra . An important contribution of the project has been the development of gender integrated modules across five disciplines namely Community Medicine, Gynecology and Obstetrics, Forensic Science and toxicology, Medicine and Psychiatry for MBBS course These gender integrated modules were tested through a quasi experimental research design to assess the feasibility of teaching gender integrated medical curriculum and also assess whether teaching such a curriculum can lead to positive attitude amongst the students towards gender. The report “TITLE” presents the experience of facilitating gender perspectives for medical students as well as positive changes in their attitudes. An important learning was the need to integrate gender across relevant medical topics throughout MBBS course. This reiterated the fact that gender as a social determinant cannot be relegated to only lectures/elective course; rather they need to be mainstreamed in to the medical curricula to enhance the understanding about the same.
CEHAT, in collaboration with DMER(Directorate of Medical Education and Research), KEM (King Edward Memorial Hospital) and the UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund) conducted ‘Evidence-based Clinical Practices’, a 1.5-day workshop aimed at increasing gender-sensitivity in the medical curriculum. The workshop was attended by mid to senior level medical practitioners and professors from all over Maharashtra.
The One Stop Scheme by the Ministry of Women and Child Development has presented the opportunity to influence the current crisis intervention services. Through this scheme, crisis intervention centres called One Stop Centres have been established or are underway in various states across the country with the objective to provide integrated support and assistance to women affected by violence, both in private and public spaces and to facilitate immediate, emergency and non-emergency access to a range of services including medical, legal, psychological and counseling support under one roof to fight against any forms of violence against women. For effective implementation of these OSC, counselors must work in coordination with the hospital within which or near which they are located. Violence against women has been recognized as a health issue under the National Health Policy, 2017. The link between violence and health has been acknowledged along with the recognition to create services to respond to survivors. In 2005, The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, was developed to offer civil remedies and reliefs to women facing violence. In 2012, the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act was introduced. Both these laws have brought in the role of support persons and Protection Officers, generating a growing reliance on counselling services. It is imperative that counselors be trained to respond to different forms of VAW and children and be equipped with the perspective and skills in responding to VAW.
CEHAT has been instrumental in
developing an evidence-based model to respond to VAW and children. In 2014, the
MOHFW laid down the guidelines and protocols for medico-legal care for
survivors of sexual assault including psychosocial support. CEHAT had the
opportunity to present its evidence based work of having established Dilaasa, a
hospital based crisis centre in collaboration with the Municipal Corporation of
Greater Mumbai. This evidence-based model has also featured in the leading
international medical journal Lancet.
is pleased to announce its National Course on counselling survivors of
violence. The course is aimed at building a critical feminist perspective on
the issue of violence against women and children and enhancing skills of the
participants in responding to survivors of violence.
has been accepted as one of the most effective counselling method for women
living in abusive relationships as it questions power and inequality within the
relationship. It encourages women to understand what they are experiencing in
context of inequalities that arise out of larger oppressive structures. This
form of counselling is gender-sensitive and has been used effectively while
engaging with various vulnerable groups including transgenders and boys.
We invite states to depute counselors appointed at One Stop Centres so that they are equipped with the perspective on violence against women and children and are prepared to respond to survivors sensitively using a survivor-centric approach. Hospital-based counselors (RMNCH+A, ICTC, etc.), social workers, psychologists and lawyers are encouraged to participate.
must have at least 2 years of work experience in counselling in the area of
VAW, with a working knowledge of English and Hindi.
Centre for Enquiry into Health and Allied Themes (Cehat) Mumbai, in
collaboration with Government Medical College Aurangabad,
Directorate of Medical Education and Research (DMER), Maharashtra
University of Health Sciences (MUHS) and United Nations Population Fund
is organizing a one day State level Conference on ‘Integrating Gender in
The second training of trainers’ programme of the GME project was conducted from 10th to 14th February, 2015, in Mumbai.
CEHAT conducted a short training of trainers programme for inducting new
participants in the Integrating Gender in Medical Education project.
This training was held on 14th and 15th Nov, 2014, at YMCA, Mumbai
From 18th – 20th October 2013, CEHAT organised a workshop at YMCA
International, Mumbai, to present strategies to engage with the health
sector for responding to violence against women.
Dr. Jill Biden, second lady of the United States visited Dilaasa, a
hospital based crisis centre for responding to violence against women on
24th July 2013. Dilaasa is a joint initiative of CEHAT and the
Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM), and demonstrates an
integrated health sector model for responding domestic violence and
Mumbai, March 8, 2013: The International Women’s Day observed on 8th
March 2013 worldwide was celebrated with much enthusiasm in 5 of
Mumbai’s peripheral Municipal Corporation hospitals, including Rajawadi
Hospital, Ghatkopar, M.T. Agarwal Hospital in Mulund, Cooper Hospital in
Vile Parle, K.B.Bhabha Hospital, Bandra and K.B. Bhabha Hospital,
Kurla. More than a decade ago, CEHAT and the Municipal Corporation of
Greater Mumbai collaborated on an initiative to make the health sector
and health care professionals responsive to women facing violence.